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  • Journal Article
    Dynamics of the Climate Dilemma
    (2024) Berge, Erling
    "Despite a growing focus on climate change from governments around the world, carbon emissions continue to rise. To understand why little progress has been made, we must first conceptualise the problem and its core elements. For example, what dynamics of trust and cooperation shape human attempts to combat climate change? How does climate change represent a social dilemma? And how have social dilemmas been resolved in other areas? Dr Erling Berge, professor emeritus at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, responds to these questions using policy examples from Norway’s rich history. He is shedding new light on past failures and future possibilities for tackling this pivotal threat to life on this planet."
  • Journal Article
    (2022) Colombo, Gerusa; Silveira, Clóvis Eduardo Malinverni da; Vanin, Fábio Scopel
    The research addresses the cultural heritage "MAESA", an old industrial park located in the city of Caxias do Sul - RS, Brazil. The general objective of the research is to verify the legal-urban regime of MAESA. In the first part of the research, the history and characteristics of the architectural complex are described. Afterwards, the regulation is addressed, in particular aspects of the Master Plan, Donation Law and General Plan. For that, we used the hypothetical-deductive approach method, adapted to legal science. The procedure method is monographic applied to a case study. The research has a basic nature with a qualitative approach, with a descriptive and explanatory objective. As a result, it was found that MAESA has specific zoning, being listed and identified as a Point of Historic Heritage Interest, it is also understood that it is necessary to observe criteria for compatibility between the current protection norms and the making of future decisions, which aim to enable the public use of space. We conclude that there is a legal regime to protect the MAESA complex, although the protection rules are dispersed.
  • Journal Article
    Collaborative Action and Social Organization in Remote Rural Regions: Autonomous Irrigation Arrangements in the Pamirs of Tajikistan
    (2020) Dörre, Andrei
    "This paper proposes a bottom–up 'nexus medium' perspective to examine and understand social organization and how socio-ecological challenges in remote rural regions are dealt with in communities that receive only limited external support. While 'nexus mediums' constitute substances, matter, or objects that combine manifold vital meanings and can be seen as socially constructed and materialized arenas of social interaction, autonomous resource management is seen as a means of local social organization. Taking water as the nexus medium of choice allows us to generate locally informed insights about the role of this scarce resource for the everyday life and social organization of communities inhabiting arid rural areas. This reasoning will be exemplified by three local case studies conducted during empirical research in the Pamirs of Tajikistan utilizing a mix of qualitative methods. The findings reveal how many fundamental everyday-life-related aspects and activities of the studied communities are related to water, and how these communities are organized around common water use and management arrangements that are based on joint decision-making, shared benefits and responsibilities, and collaborative action. The 'nexus medium' concept appears to be an appropriate approach for research that seeks to understand from a local perspective how communal living is organized and how socio-ecological challenges are addressed."
  • Journal Article
    New Development: Mitigating and negotiating the co-creation of dis/value—Elinor Ostrom’s design principles and co-creating public value
    (2022) Williams, Oli; Lindenfalk, Bertil; Robert, Glenn; Robert, Glenn
    "Although Elinor Ostrom’s principles for collaborative group working could promote effective and equitable collaborative endeavours among diverse actors/stakeholders, they are largely untested in public service design and delivery. This article demonstrates how Ostrom’s principles could help to mitigate the potential for co-creating dis/value and instead support all involved to co-create systemic public value. The authors develop Ostrom’s work by proposing: an original, systemically-informed re-classification of Ostrom’s principles; that cocreation endeavours can be reconceptualized as a novel way of creating a ‘common pool resource’ and; that failure to adequately address the potential to co-create dis/value can lead to ‘tragedies of co-design’."
  • Journal Article
    Exploring Elinor Ostrom’s Principles for Collaborative Group Working within a User‑led Project: Lessons from a Collaboration between Researchers and a User‑led Organisation
    (2024) Wheeler, Bella; Williams, Oli; Meakin, Becki; Chambers, Eleni; Beresford, Peter; O'Brien, Sarah; Robert, Glenn; Robert, Glenn
    "Some research has been undertaken into the mechanisms that shape successful participatory approaches in the context of efforts to improve health and social care. However, greater attention needs to be directed to how partnerships between researchers and user-led organisations (ULOs) might best be formed, practiced, managed, and assessed. We explored whether political economist Elinor Ostrom’s Nobel prize winning analysis of common pool resource management—specifically eight principles to enhance collaborative group working as derived from her empirical research—could be usefully applied within a user-led project aiming to co-design new services to support more inclusive involvement of Disabled people in decision-making processes in policy and practice. Participant observation and participatory methods over a 16-month period comprising observational notes of online user-led meetings (26 h), online study team meetings (20 h), online Joint Interpretive Forum meetings (8 h), and semi-structured one-to-one interviews with project participants (44 h) at two time points (months 6 and 10). Initially it proved difficult to establish working practices informed by Ostrom’s principles for collaborative group working within the user-led project. Several attempts were made to put a structure in place that met the needs of both the research study and the aims of the user-led project, but this was not straightforward. An important shift saw a move away from directly applying the principles to the working practices of the group and instead applying them to specific tasks the group were undertaking. This was a helpful realisation which enabled the principles to become—for most but not all participants—a useful facilitation device in the latter stages of the project. Eventually we applied the principles in a way that was useful and enabled collaboration between researchers and a ULO (albeit in unexpected ways).
  • Journal Article
    Applying Elinor Ostrom’s Design Principles to Guide Co-Design in Health(care) Improvement: A Case Study with Citizens Returning to the Community from Jail in Los Angeles County
    (2021) Robert, Glenn; Williams, Oli; Lindenfalk, Bertil; Mendel, Peter; Davis, Lois; Turner, Susan; Farmer, Cedric; Branch, Cheryl
    "Increased interest in collaborative and inclusive approaches to healthcare improvement makes revisiting Elinor Ostrom’s ‘design principles’ for enabling collective management of common pool resources (CPR) in polycentric systems a timely endeavour. Ostrom proposed a generalisable set of eight core design principles for the efficacy of groups. To consider the utility of Ostrom’s principles for the planning, delivery, and evaluation of future health(care) improvement we retrospectively apply them to a recent co-design project. Three distinct aspects of co-design were identified through consideration of the principles. These related to: (1) understanding and mapping the system (2) upholding democratic values and (3) regulating participation. Within these aspects four of Ostrom’s eight principles were inherently observed. Consideration of the remaining four principles could have enhanced the systemic impact of the co-design process. Reconceptualising co-design through the lens of CPR offers new insights into the successful system-wide application of such approaches for the purpose of health(care) improvement. The eight design principles – and the relationships between them – form a heuristic that can support the planning, delivery, and evaluation of future healthcare improvement projects adopting co-design. They may help to address questions of how to scale up and embed such approaches as self-sustaining in wider systems.
  • Journal Article
    Patented Brand Drugs are Essential Facilities and Regulatory Compacts
    (2023) Hamilton, Clovia; Stokes, Gerald M.
    The COVID-19 health pandemic highlighted the need for more readily affordable patented drugs. Brand drug companies argue that they need to recuperate their research and development (“R&D”), marketing and advertising expenses. The incentive to innovate also needs to be preserved. Drug companies are entitled to a profit and a return on their investment, just as afforded to utility monopolies. Intellectual property and human rights clash relative to access to patented drugs. We provide several proposed approaches to resolve this dilemma and conclude with an argument that patented drugs should be considered a public utility. A model based on the public utility approach has a great deal of merit as a model for setting prices for essential drugs and treatments. The price, however, setting should not be the province of back-room discussions between drug companies and insurers. Prices should be negotiated in public with full transparency just as electricity rates. Investor-owned utilities are profitable essential facilities that are of great benefit to consumers and provide reasonable and regular return on investment for their owners. This can happen for manufacturers of essential drugs as well.
  • Journal Article
    Social Affinity Flow Theory (SAFT) and New Insights into the Systems Archetypes of Escalation and Tragedy of the Commons
    (2023) Gourdine, Christopher; Morrison, William
    "Social Affinity Flow Theory (SAFT) is a new theoretical framework based upon Constructal Law (Bejan & Zane, 2012) and explains how this law uniquely operates within human social systems, whether within small groups, non-profits, multinational corporations, or societies. We investigate the relationship between SAFT, systems thinking, and the two archetypes of Tragedy of the Commons and Escalation, two frameworks that have proven useful to leaders and decision-makers. SAFT expands the applicability of the two archetypes and uncovers new insights with implications for multiple domains of human activity, including the practice of management."
  • Journal Article
    Analyzing Access and Equity in Primary Education: Addressing Rising Dropout Rates Among Malawian Learners
    (2023) Nyoni, Precious
    "With an emphasis on tackling the alarming increase in dropout rates among Malawian students, this study tackles the vital concerns of fairness and accessibility in Malawian elementary education. The study uses a qualitative method to clarify the opinions and experiences of significant stakeholders and to expose the complex interplay of factors that contribute to this pervasive challenge. Focus groups, in-depth interviews, and document analysis were used to collect qualitative data from a range of participant groups, including students, teachers, parents, and educa-tion officials, and to gain crucial insights into the state of education. With the use of these methods, the complexity of the problem was examined, and a thorough understanding of the challenges Malawian primary education faced was produced. According to the study's findings, the rising dropout rates are the result of a complicated web of circumstances. Due to the significant challenges faced by economically disadvantaged students in their educational endeavours, the subject of socioeconomic disparities has gained significant importance. There were also obvious gen-der differences, with early marriages and teenage pregnancies typically having an excessively negative effect on fe-males. The opinions and firsthand accounts of Malawian students provided valuable insights into the challenges they encounter when trying to get into and stay in school. Firsthand narratives brightened the difficulties that learners encounter, including risky and lengthy travels to school as well as inadequate facilities and educational resources. The study evaluated the effectiveness of government initiatives and programs created to lessen the dropout pandemic."
  • Journal Article
    Cybercrime and Online Safety: Addressing the challenges and solutions related to cybercrime, online fraud, and ensuring a safe digital environment for all users— A Case of African States
    (2023) Vitus, Emmanuel N.
    The internet has made the world more linked than ever before. While taking advantage of this online transition, cybercriminals target flaws in online systems, networks, and infrastructure. Businesses, government organizations, people, and communities all across the world, particularly in African countries, are all severely impacted on an economic and social level. Many African countries focused more on developing secure electricity and internet networks; yet, cybersecurity usually receives less attention than it should. One of Africa's major issues is the lack of adequate digital security infrastructure, which has harmed businesses, governmental institutions, and individual communities more than it has helped. The majority of African countries operate without cybersecurity measures in place to combat cyberattacks. Only a few examples of today's cyber risks include digital extortion, business email intrusion, data breaches, online fraud, ransomware, and phishing, and new types of cybercrime are always developing. Due to the advent of new technology, cybercriminals have become more organized and quicker in their attacks and alliance creation. To maintain a secure digital environment for all internet users, this study focused on the challenges, solutions, and need for African countries to improve their online safety by tackling cybercrime, online fraud, and cybersecurity concerns. The objective of this study is to offer practical and long-term answers to the problems posed by cybercrime, with a continuing emphasis on enhancing online safety. It will assess the effectiveness of cutting-edge cybersecurity measures, legislative frameworks, and cross-border cooperative efforts, as well as potential areas for improvement. Additionally, the study will examine cutting-edge methods like blockchain technology, machine learning, and other cutting-edge methods that could improve our using digital defences to stop cybercrime.
  • Journal Article
    Water User Associations and Collective Action in Irrigation and Drainage
    (2023) Bruns, Bryan
    "This article discusses what water user associations can do, factors that affect various forms of local collective action in irrigation and drainage, and how water user associations (WUAs) might help respond to local and global challenges and opportunities. Major themes include co-management of irrigation by communities and states, the diversity of water governance institutions, and the resilience of local cooperation in managing water to grow food. The article begins by looking at the long history of cooperation in irrigation, presents institutional design patterns in long-enduring local irrigation communities, points to the prevalence of co-production and co-management by states and communities, examines lessons from efforts to develop WUAs in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, and highlights current challenges and opportunities for WUAs. The end of the article provides references and recommended readings."
  • Journal Article
    Fluctuations in Agricultural Production: A Comparative Study across Selected Countries
    (2023) Bhagbat, Mallik; Mohanty, Siba Sankar
    "Fluctuation in agriculture is a matter of concern in the recent year. The present study analyses the cross-country fluctuations in agricultural production and the factors affecting the fluctuation in agricultural production. The study aims at studying the fluctuations of crop production, fertiliser consumption, arable land, land under cereal production, and agricultural machinery at the global level. The present study used the Cuddy Della Valle Index and a multiple regression model to analyse the fluctuations in agricultural production across countries. The entire study is divided into four sub-periods: 1981–1990, 1991–2000, 2001–2010, and 2011–2020. Several fluctuations in crop production, fertiliser consumption, arable land, land under cereal production, and agricultural machinery were observed in the study over the period. Different levels of instability were observed over the period of time."
  • Journal Article
    Empirical Evidence of Urban Climate Adaptation Alignment with Sustainable Development: Application of LDA
    (2023) Jin, Saebom; Stokes, Gerald; Hamilton, Clovia
    "Cities are critical sites for climate action. Population and infrastructure are concentrated in urban areas and their susceptibility to climate change impacts makes them a pivotal place to embark on adaptation plans and strategies. In the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) affirms that urban adaptation allows sustainable development and resilience. However, without evidence, this affirmation fails to acquire credibility and objectivity. As an attempt to provide the evidence for the assertion, this study examines the current actions in urban centers to determine if there is an alignment between adaptation and development. The study employs text mining techniques to analyze 400 urban project descriptions from Cities100 reports (2015–2019) of the C40 network. With Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), a machine learning algorithm for topic model analysis, the study identifies 17 major topics. Using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis to further characterize the findings, it finds an alignment of adaptation with urban sustainable and resilient development in several major cities. In this way, the paper makes a contribution to a global understanding of urban adaptation as well as demonstrates a way of adopting the grey literature into the urban adaptation studies."
  • Journal Article
    Assessment of Tourists’ Perception of Okomu National Park as an Eco-Tourism Destination, Edo State, Nigeria
    (2022) Olubunmi-Ojo, Tabitha T.
    "This study assessed tourists’ perception of Okomu National Park as an eco-tourism destination. Tourists’ destinations can be a place or a resort where tourists go and stay or it could be an area or country in where a visitor stays and travels. Data for this study were collected from primary and secondary sources. Results from this study shows that their trip motivations are attraction oriented with game viewing extremely important to their visitation. This study therefore recommended that, Okomu National Park in conjunction with other governmental bodies should fashion out a process to facilitate community empowerment with a view to diverting the attention of the inhabitants of the surrounding communities from illegal logging, which most of them depend on. Thus, to meet the needs and the satisfaction of the eco-tourists, continuous research in these areas is important, particularly in emerging ecotourism markets like Nigeria."
  • Journal Article
    Strategies towards Enhancing Students’ Skill Acquisition through Foods and Nutrition Practicals in Tertiary Institutions in Anambra State, Nigeria
    (2022) Emeka, Ebele Cynthia; Ezenwanne, Dorothy Nkem; Ezekwem, Rita Amara
    "The study on strategies towards enhancing students’ skill acquisition through foods and nutrition practicals in tertiary institutions in Anambra State examined the challenges facing effective Foods and Nutrition Practical lessons in tertiary institutions in the State. It also identified strategies that will help the students to gain more skills through balanced practical lessons on foods and nutrition. The study adapted a descriptive research design. The study raised two research questions for guidance; population comprised 38 Foods and Nutrition lecturers and 263 students making a total of 301 persons. Through a Simple random sampling, 147 respondents made up of 35 lecturers and 112 final year students of Home Economics were selected. A Structured questionnaire was used in data collecting and arithmetic mean was used for analysis of data. Challenges militating against effective practical lessons include inadequate time allocation, lack of interest, dearth of qualified teachers and supervisors among others. Strategies such as use of proper teaching methods, subsidizing the cost of practical lessons, exposing students to seminars, conferences and field trips were also identified as ways of tackling the identified challenges. Based on the findings, the study recommended that government and well-meaning individuals should help to equip laboratories with equipment and facilities in tune with times and needs. It is also recommended that Foods and Nutrition practicals should be handles by qualified teachers and resource persons."
  • Journal Article
    Repositioning Small and Medium Scale Enterprises for Growth: Focus on Rural Women Entrepreneurs in Abia State, Nigeria
    (2022) Alozie, Elsie N.
    "Entrepreneurship is a potential tool for economic transformation, considering the impact it has on employment, wealth generation, and spurring local entrepreneurship. Thus, women entrepreneurs the world over, have continued to contribute significantly to the growth and development of their economies through this medium. This paper assessed the ways in which rural women SMEs can be repositioned for maximum growth, based on two objectives: to examine the factors that affect rural women SMEs; and to ascertain the determinants of growth of rural women SMEs. The paper utilized survey research method, and deployed a structured questionnaire based on the 5-point Likert scale. 250 participants were drawn for the study, while face and content validity techniques were employed. Reliability rate was determined using Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient Statistical Procedure. Findings revealed that rural women entrepreneurs are plagued with challenges ranging from lack of quality education, poor state of infrastructure, ineffective credit system as well as a harsh business climate. As a result, factors such as improved market access, ensuring an effective value chain, increased competitiveness, enhanced market entry, quality education/skill acquisition, efficient credit system, adequate infrastructure, and a friendly and enabling business environment were advocated for. The paper recommended among others, the need for financial inclusion and efficient credit system for rural women to enhance the growth of their SMEs."
  • Journal Article
    Assessment of the Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) for Forest Resources Conservation in Imo State, Nigeria
    (2022) Onyema, M.C.; Gideon, I.K.; Aju, P.C.; Ani, C.O.
    "Dwindling appropriation to the forestry sub-sector has necessitated alternative finance mechanisms for sustainable forest service in developing and developed societies. Studies on Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) for forest service and nature conservation among households was conducted in a rural (Ekeugba forest community) and semi-urban (Obinze community with no forest reserve therein) regions of Imo State, SE Nigeria. A hundred sets of questionnaire were administered to households in these communities to assess willingness levels, acceptable amounts payable by the above households and likely factors which influence WTP which latter was analyzed using multiple regression at p<0.05. In the results, low percentage of WTP (14%) was recorded for the forest community who derived an average of about N4,391:81 per month/household from forest service while 30% WTP was obtained from semi-urban community who correspondingly derived an average of about N1,610:36 from forest service per month/household. Acceptable payment signified by these households was N394/month/household for semi-urban community and N100/month/household for rural forest community which reflects 24% and 2% respectively of the above income derivative from forest utility. The more educated (education: p=0.005) and the more married that household members are (marital status: p=0.042), the more willing they are to pay for forest service/conservation in their area in the result, location (urban: p= 0.006) influenced individual's perception and thinking about natural resources. Urbanism with its associated spate of socialization, administrative structure and influence tends to add impetus to influence individual thinking and perception about development."
  • Journal Article
    A Study on Production and Marketing of Pineapple in Kolli Hills, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu – India
    (2021) Sivakkolundu, C.
    "India is the second largest producer of fruits (44 million tons) and vegetables (87.5 million tons) with a unique position in fruits like mango, litchi, banana, pineapple, sapota and grapes. India’s share in the world production is about 10.1% in fruits and 14.4% in vegetables. The future of the Indian farmers depends on the success of the agriculture sector as India’s prosperity is predominantly linked to the growth in income in the agrarian sector of the economy. India has been bestowed with wide range of climate and physio geographical conditions and as such is most suitable for growing various kinds of horticultural crops. Pineapple is the most important American fruit, and the third most important tropical fruit, after banana and mango citrus fruits being produced mainly in subtropical areas. It is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical countries. The common name for one member of and for the Bromeliaceae, a family of chiefly epiphytic herbs and small shrubs. The spiny leaves of various species of the genus Ananas yield a hard fiber called gravata in South America and pina, or pineapple cloth, in the Philippines. The fruit, whose spiny skin is yellowish brown when ripe, is sweet and juicy; it is topped by a distinctive rosette of green leaves. It is grown throughout warmer regions. The economics of pineapple production is indispensable since there is no proper farm business data on its cost of production. The accurate figure on establishment cost, operating cost and input requirement of pineapple orchard would be greatly helpful to the pineapple producers in general. This information will be of immense use to farm financing institutions. Area under pineapple is gradually expanding in the study area district. The present study is an attempt to analyze the feasibility of investment in pineapple gardens and to find out the profitability of pineapple crop."
  • Journal Article
    Impact of Access to Agricultural Credit on the Productivity of Togolese Farmers
    (2021) Agbeno, Yao
    "The objective of this paper is to measure the impact of access to agricultural credit on the productivity of farmers in Togo. The results show that there is a difference between farmers who have access to credit and those who do not. Also, farmers with access to credit have higher productivity than those without. Thus, access to credit is an essential factor in increasing agricultural productivity. Togolese decision-makers must, in the development of their agricultural policy, place greater emphasis on mechanisms to promote access to agricultural credit."
  • Journal Article
    Urban Agriculture: A Timely Game Changer for Urban Residents in Nigeria
    (2021) M.C., Onyema; N.C., Osuagwu; A.A., Nwogu; C.C., Nwaigwe
    "This paper leverages on the yet-unanswered calls of the 1996 World Food Summit as well as the 2nd Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations both of which support zero hunger and safe, nutritious and sufficient food. Nigeria and Africa on the whole actively engage in agriculture but this is more restricted to the rural area. This piece provides a view of the status of urban agriculture presented in both exploratory and descriptive terms thus contributing to the several academic fields in urban planning and research discourse. The farmers, government and urban managers are among key stakeholders that can step up at both local and regional scales especially in terms of governance, estate planning and urban dynamics. Although with a global outlook and dimension, case study therein presents current practices and quantitative descriptions based on surveys from metropolitan city of Lagos, Nigeria thus providing an argumentative reflection for the promotion of a wide range of urban agriculture practices. This is hoped to nourish the discussion on urban wellbeing and development."
  • Journal Article
    Agricultural Research Structure and Productivity in Bulgaria
    (2021) Hrabrin, Bachev
    "This paper gives insight on organization and efficiency of agricultural research in Bulgaria during the period after country’s accession to EU. The analysis is predominately based on the research carried out in the Agricultural Academy—the main institution responsible for the organization of agricultural research in the country. Our analysis has found out that some of the Academy institutes and stations manage significant land and other resources, but the material and technical endowments of the majority of them is outdated, while some have no “critical” mass of human, financial and material resources needed for carrying effective modern research. The number of researchers and experts employed in the Academy is constantly decreasing due to insufficient budget funding, regulatory constraints, restructuring and layoffs, lack of acceptable pay and working conditions, insufficiently qualified candidates in some areas, etc. Since country’s accession to the EU, there has been a significant reduction in the overall expenditure and budget subsidies for agrarian research institutes and centers. Despite multiple “reforms” of the agrarian research system, the country still does not have an effective structure for organization of R&D and public funding systems, coordination and evaluation of research, evaluation and stimulation of researchers and teams, and protection of intellectual agricultural property rights. The trends and problems in the development of agricultural research in universities and Bulgarian Academy of Sciences are similar to those in the Agricultural Academy. There is no aggregated information about the nature and volume of agricultural research conducted by the Bulgarian universities, institutes of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and in the private sector which requires the collection of similar information in the future in order to improve analysis and management."
  • Journal Article
    Sustainable Organic Farming Practices
    (2021) M., Manida; G., Nedumaran
    "The aim of the paper is to evaluate the association of organic farming to strengthen the sustainability of organic agriculture. Organic agriculture shows abundant benefits, as it reduces many of the environmental impacts of conventional agriculture, it can increase efficiency in small farmers’ fields, and it reduces reliance on costly external inputs, and guarantees price premiums for organic products. Organic farmers also profit from farmer cooperative and the formation of social networks, which enhances good access to instruction, credit and welfare services. This paper brings out how the function of organic farming contributes for the sustainable practices and improving environment conservation, animal welfare, and product quality."
  • Journal Article
    Protection of the Breeders and Farmers Rights-UPOV & PPVFRA
    (2021) Simran, Bais
    "The paper encapsulates the position of Farmer’s rights in the legislation concerning Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Act, 2001. India was confronted with an option to adopt UPOV model or go through its own legislative draft proposal. The model of UPOV was rejected by India due to the fact that rights of the farmers were not protected and instead the entire focus was on breeder’s rights. The paper is a step forward to argue that the rights of the farmers are at different pedestal than the rights of the breeders especially in a country like India. there is a need to understand the history of PPVFRA legislation in terms of what were its loopholes and how it overcame major impediments. It is imperative to understand that the Farmers rights under intellectual property regime should be protected because with respect to plant genetic resources they do not have in depth scientific understanding but they certainly understand the paramount importance of plant genetic resources in agricultural field because its variability is a potential factor and this cannot be ignored. Moreover, from a long period of time the traditional knowledge which the farmer acquires in terms of selection of plant variety, improvising it and sustainable use of the same should be treated at par with intellectual inputs as this is certainly a monumental benefaction from the farming community. The paper discusses the main impediments of the legislation and suggest some measures to improvise the same."
  • Journal Article
    Facilitating Academic Achievement of Students in Carbohydrate: Con sideration of Jigsaw, Think-Pair-Share and Coop-Coop Cooperative Strategies
    (2022) Achor, Emmanuel Edoja; Jack, Gladys Uzezi; Daiko, Comfort
    Worried by the poor performance of students in organic chemistry, this study examined the comparative facilitative effects of Jigsaw, Think-pair-share and Coop-Coop Cooperative Instructional Strategies on Achievement of students’ in Car bohydrate aspect of Chemistry in Jalingo metropolis in Taraba State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised 1936 Senior Secondary two students in all the 41 public schools in the study area. The sample consists of 322 students (184 boys and 138 girls). Achievement Test in Carbohydrate (ATC) made up of 50 multiple choice questions was used to collect data for the study. Kuder-Richardson (K-20) was used to estimate the reliability index of 0.86 for the ATC. To answer the research questions and test hypotheses, the research adopted the descriptive statistics (Mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Based on the data collected and analyzed, it was found that students taught carbohydrates using Jigsaw cooperative instructional strategy performed significantly better than their counterparts taught using Think-pair-share and Coop-Coop Cooperative Instructional Strategy. There was no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught carbohydrates using Jigsaw, Think-pair-share and coop–coop cooperative instructional strategies. Interaction effects between instructional strategies and gender on achievement was not statistically significant. It was recommended that there should be workshop to address the use of Jigsaw to teach chemical concepts and operations to enable teachers of chemistry employ it. Chemistry teachers should give female and male stu dents equal opportunities in the classroom to enable them achieve equally.
  • Journal Article
    Environmental Cost and Market Share of Listed Manufacturing Companies in Nigeria
    (2022) Worimegbe, Temitope Mariam
    "The study examines the impact of environmental cost, controlled by firm size and firm age; on the market share of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria from 2007 to 2017. The descriptive research design was adopted for the study. Twenty listed manufacturing companies were purposively drawn from the population of sixty manufacturing companies listed on the floor of the Nigerian Stock Exchange as of 31 December 2017. The study’srelevant figures were extracted from the annual reports and accounts as well as the stand-alone environmental information of the selected companies over eleven years, from 2007-2017. Panel regression analysis was used to examine the impact of the proxies to independent variable on the dependent variable. Findings from the panel fixed-effect regression analysis showed that environmental cost had a significant impact on market share (F= 56.20, p < .05) at 5% level of significance. The study, therefore, concludes that environmental cost has a positive significant effect on the market share of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The study recommends that manufacturing companies should increase their financial commitment to issues of environmental concerns to increase their market share."
  • Journal Article
    Proposed Water Monitoring System for Sustainable Electricity Generation in Water Battery System
    (2022) Esomu, Solomon; Oluchukwu, Nathan
    "There is a growing demand for the development of sustainable electrical energy. However, irrespective of the source of alternative energy embarked upon there is also a need to have rechargeable energy storage systems or units that can store energy from the sun or wind when they are available. Such Rechargeable Energy storage devices are critically important if we desire to move fully into renewable sources of power and usher in sustainable electrical energy. One widely used source of energy storage is the battery. Battery storage, or battery energy storage systems (BESS). However, the use of water batteries requires ensuring that the water level and quality are in the required amount. The paper reviews the use of the internet of things and how it can be applied for use in a water battery system that generates electricity. When applied the Water batteries can feed into an existing electric grid and help in ensuring constant electricity by redistributing electricity when demand is high. This study proposes the use of IoT systems in that regard to ensure automatic water monitoring of water-based devices."
  • Journal Article
    Implementation of an IOT-Based Water Quality Monitoring System in Water Battery Electricity Generation Plants
    (2022) Oluchukwu, Nathan; Solomon, Esomu
    "Water batteries can feed into an existing electric grid and help in ensuring constant electricity by redistributing electricity when demand is high. However, the water-based water system's main significant problem with battery maintenance is knowing when to fill batteries with water and checking the quality of water coming into it. The quality and level of water in a water battery electricity generating system need to be monitored and managed to ensure that it lasts a long time. This study, therefore, looked at how IoT systems can be used in that regard to ensure constant electricity. The objective of this research is to develop and implement a prototype IoT-based water quality monitoring system for use in the water battery system. Arduino Uno was used as the microcontroller for this project. The sensors needed in this project consist of a pH sensor, Turbidity sensors and conductivity. A Wi-Fi module was used to send the results to the smartphone via Wi-Fi. The results were sent through Blynk software and the results were shown on a smartphone. The developed water monitoring quality system detected water quality parameters like Ph, water level and turbidity. The data obtained from the sensors were uploaded to the Blynk/ThingSpeak dashboard for online monitoring purposes. The system can also control the water quality of the samples by interfacing with pumps to maintain acceptable water levels and quality. The prototype system monitored water quality according to the scheduled plan and objective. The developed system was successfully implemented and determined the turbidity, pH, Total dissolved solids (TDS), flow rate and level of water. The paper recommends that the prototype should be adopted and developed along with the water battery electricity generation system."
  • Journal Article
    Coping Strategies Families Can Adopt to Manage Challenges of Climate Change in Adamawa State, Nigeria
    (2022) Angelina, Emmanuel; Onyeche, Ejembi D; Paulina, Dominic O. E.
    "Climate change is one of the most critical environmental challenges confronting human existence in the 21st century. This study investigated the coping strategies that families can adopt to manage challenges of climate change in Ganye, Adamawa State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 384 inhabitants of the area was drawn across the households in Ganye for the study through a multi-stage sampling procedure. A questionnaire was developed by researchers for data collection. The findings of the study revealed that the mean ratings of the items identified as the challenges of climate change faced by respondents in the study area were above a criterion mean of 2.50, which depicts that the identified items were the challenges of climate change faced by the respondents. The values of the standard deviations ranged from 0.37-0.87, which implies that the responses of the respondents were close to each other and to the mean. The mean ratings for the several coping strategies families can adopt in managing the challenges of climate change were above a criterion mean of 2.50, which implies that the items identified were perceived as the coping strategies to manage the challenges of climate change. It was recommended that trees and cover crops should be planted in order to address the challenges posed by climate change in the study area."
  • Journal Article
    Assessment of Food Quality, Perceived Value, and Brand Image as Determinants of Brand Switching among Dinners in Food Service Establishments in Umuahia Metropolis, Abia State, Nigeria
    (2022) Anyanwu, Iheanyi B.; Ezeaku, Magret N
    "This study sought to assess food quality, perceived value, and brand image as determinants of brand switching in food service establishments in Umuahia metropolis Abia State, Nigeria. It was a descriptive survey research in which three specific objectives and three research hypotheses guided the study. The researchers purposively used 300 dinners of six reputable food service establishments in the study area as sample size. The research instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire on a 4-point scale. Descriptive and inferential statistics on SPSS version 25 were used to analyze the data generated. Findings revealed that, the independent variables; food quality, perceived value, and brand image have negative relationships with brand switching as indicated below by their respective coefficient values: food quality (-0.05429), perceived value (-0.0098) and brand image (-0.0615). Based on the findings, it is concluded that the independent variables under study have negative relationships with the dependent variable-brand switching. It is recommended among others that operators of food service establishments are to ensure that the quality of their menu offerings meets the physiological needs of the consumers, ensure that there is continuous improvement in all facets of their operations and build an image that portrays their operations in good light and improves customer-brand relationship."
  • Journal Article
    Women's Entrepreneurship and Improved Family Lifestyle in Abia State, Nigeria
    (2022) Alozie, Elsie N.; Ekumankama, Ijeoma O.
    "Women's entrepreneurship is an important source of employment and potential growth, not just for the economy but as a means of improving family lifestyle. Hence, this paper evaluated women's entrepreneurship and its impact on improved family lifestyle in Abia State, Nigeria. The objectives were to ascertain the motivation behind women’s involvement in entrepreneurship and to find out if women entrepreneurs increase the level of family income. A survey design was used, while a multi-stage random sampling technique was adopted. Data were analyzed using percentage and weighted mean, while results show that, that the motivation behind women’s involvement in entrepreneurship included financial need (41.1%), self-independence (33.8%), becoming employers of labour(6.9%), serving as role models to their children (4.2%), being able to assist in the spouse/family’s business(3.3%), among others. Also, women entrepreneurs were able to increase the level of their family income through involvement in several enterprises ranging from agriculture (3.5), support for spouse business (3.5), personal enterprise (3.9), skill acquisition (3.7), and provision of essential services (3.6). The paper, therefore, recommended that there is a need to encourage financial adequacy, self-independence, and support for spouse/family’s businesses among women. More importantly, women should strive to become employers of labour, and be role models to their children, especially as it concerns increasing the family’s income and ensuring their welfare."
  • Journal Article
    The Role of Home Economics in Curbing Insecurity and Inflation in Nigeria
    (2022) Ugwuokpe, Chigozie L; Chukwuone, Chiamaka A.
    "This paper examined the role of Home Economics in curbing insecurity and inflation in Nigeria. It investigated into the contributory factors of insecurity and inflation in Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Seventy (70) respondents were used for the study. The respondents were lecturers, final year students and some post graduate students offering Home Economics Education in Enugu state tertiary institutions namely: University of Nigeria, Federal College of Education Eha–Amufu and Enugu State College of Education (Technical). A 30-item questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the respondents. 70 questionnaire copies distributed were completed and returned. The respondents agreed with all the items listed as causes, and consequences of insecurity and inflation in Nigeria and equally agreed with all the items suggested as how to manage the challenges of insecurity and inflation through Home Economics Education in Enugu State. The researchers concluded that Home Economics must be given adequate attention by the government to ensure effective skills training that will guarantee job opportunities for Nigerians and makes for healthy living by all."
  • Journal Article
    Availability and Utilization of Reading Resources in Homes for Effective Learning among Primary School Children
    (2022) Ezeanwu, Amaka Bibian; Okoro, Joy Oluchukwu; Ezeanwu, Robert Chinweze; Onah, Uchechukwu Hope
    The study investigated the availability of reading resources and the extent of utilization of these resources for effective learning among primary school children in Nsukka Educational Zone of Enugu State. It also assessed the utilization of modeled reading behavior in early reading activities of school children. Three research questions guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design, and the instrument used for data collection was Pupils’ Home Reading Environment Scale (PHRES). The collected data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. Findings of the study revealed that most primary school pupils do not have access to reading resources while participating in learning activities at home, and children are exposed to poor modeled reading behavior. Based on the findings, it was recommended that there is a need to improve the awareness of parents on the need to provide adequate reading resources by improving parents’ awareness programmes towards this effort.
  • Journal Article
    Research Data Preservation Practices of Library and Information Science Faculties
    (2022) Subaveerapandiyan, A; Anuradha, Maurya
    "Digitisation of research data is widely increasing all around the world because it needs more and development of enormous digital technologies. Data curation services are starting to offer many libraries. Research data curation is the collective invaluable and reusable information of the researchers. Collected data preservation is more important. The majority of the higher education institutes preserved the research data for their students and researchers. It is stored for a long time using various formats. It is called research data preservation. Without proper research data management plan and implementation cannot curate the research data. The aim of the study is to identify the Asian Library and Information Science (LIS) faculties’ experiences in the research data preservation and curation during their research. Data management, curation and preservation all are interlinked. For reuse of the research data; data curation is an essential role. For this research, we adopted a survey method and an online questionnaire was shared with 1400 LIS professionals, belonging to the Asian region but the completed study respondents are 125 university faculties from various Asian countries. The study findings are 76.8 per cent generated statistical data followed by 58.4 per cent textual files. By far, the most preferable data analysis tool is Microsoft Excel 82.4 per cent. Moreover, the result shows that generated data is mostly stored by personal computers and laptop hard disks. This study concludes LIS faculties having adequate skills and knowledge on data curation and preservation even though they are expecting more services from their academic institute libraries."
  • Journal Article
    A Study of Obstacles in Plagiarism Software Subscribing by Colleges in Tamil Nadu
    (2022) Subaveerapandiyan, A; Sakthivel, N
    "This article attempts to comprehend the current issues and hurdles that Indian colleges affiliated with Tamil Nadu State Universities encounter when trying to subscribe to a software that detects plagiarism. The study’s goals are to determine whether colleges employ anti-plagiarism software, whether they ensure that their student-given assignments are free of copyright infringement, whether tutors teach about academic misconduct, and what people seem to think of anti-plagiarism software. We surveyed for this study and distributed the questionnaires among college administrators, principals, and librarians. The study respondents are 15.9 per cent principals, 64.2 per cent library professionals, and 19.9 per cent college administrators. The survey study report shows that 70.9 per cent of the majority of the colleges did not subscribe. 41.7 per cent gave the reason it is too expensive, and 30.5 per cent of respondents thought that for their college, it is unnecessary to subscribe. However, nobody has confirmed whether or not all colleges possess access to plagiarism detection software. Thus, according to this investigation, further Indian states must be involved in this research to understand the specific context fully. This report advises the UGC to enforce the requirement that colleges have plagiarism detection software; they either provide colleges additional money to subscribe to such software, or the university must grant free access to the affiliated colleges."
  • Journal Article
    Lived Experiences, Challenges, and Coping Mechanisms of Teachers on the Current Paradigm Shift in Education: A Phenomenological Study
    (2022) Nalla, Risalita C
    "This study employed an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) which aimed to explore the lived experiences, challenges, and coping mechanisms of teachers in the public school both in elementary and secondary schools in Malolos, Bulacan. The findings of this study revealed that most teachers are significantly challenged with the poor internet connection, multitasking and multitudes of paperwork to be submitted, communication with the parents and teachers and the different modalities of learning which are cited as the contributing factors of stress and anxiety. As to the experiences of the teachers, they became a module writer, online teacher, reporter while doing the online classes and juggling with the work at home as a homemaker. However, the good experiences of this pandemic brought realization to the teachers that they were able to unleash their potential and utilized the skills needed to survive in this difficult time. Moreover, teachers coped up with the situations through prayers, listening and watching motivational videos, yoga and others became farmers too just to avoid stress. Finally, the teachers also gave their suggestions to further help other teachers also who are struggling during this pandemic. Majority of the participants gave emphasis to focus on stabilizing mental health. Others also highlighted the need to seek the assistance of other people who are knowledgeable in terms of ICT. Continuing innovation and researching to update oneself was also one of the suggested ways to deal with the current paradigm shift in education."
  • Journal Article
    Ecological Niche Modeling to Assessment of Potential Distribution of Neodiprion abietis (Harris, 1841) (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Diprionidae) in Eurasia
    (2021) Konstantin, Grebennikov
    "In the article first assesses the potential distribution in Eurasia of Neodiprion abietis (Harris, 1841) first time assessed. The species id a widely distributed in North America fir and spruce defoliator, intercepted in 2016 in the Netherlands. Analysis of the literature data on the known distribution and host plants of the species is given. Insufficient data for ecological modeling is shown, which causes a high degree of uncertainty in assessment of potential range. The results of modeling the potential range of the species using several algorithms are presented. The reliability of the obtained models and the importance of bio-climatic environmental variables for species distribution are assessed."
  • Journal Article
    La Hermenéutica en la Era del Homo-Digital
    (2019) Castillo Bohórquez, María Isabel
    "El desarrollo de un Paradigma Digital se encuentra vinculado a la relación entre los adelantos tecnológicos y las telecomunicaciones, y está modificando la estructura social, el comportamiento humano, así como los modos de comunicación, recepción y procesamiento de la información. La humanidad está en la Edad de Piedra del Homo-Digital, aún no se sabe de manera definitiva y determinante a dónde conducirá el empleo de la tecnología a gran escala, la evolución en términos darwinianos ocurre de manera más lenta, pero la dinámica en los cambios sociales es prácticamente inmediata, lo que dificulta su seguimiento y estudio. Ante todas estas modificaciones de la comunicación y el lenguaje en las sociedades contemporáneas, se ha perdido el interés académico acerca de hermenéutica como metodología de estudio de las Ciencias Humanas. Es así como siguiendo la línea de Capurro (2010) se entiende la hermenéutica como una práctica metodológica de las Ciencias Humanas que permite interpretar y comprender procesos digitales."
  • Journal Article
    La Metamorfosis Autopoiética de la Vía Emprendedora
    (2019) Machado, Franklin
    "Es fundamental escapar de la ignorancia que hemos creado, por ello se asume la Vía señalada por Edgar Morín (2011) Se necesita una nueva civilización para alcanzar mejor calidad de vida. Se observa cómo la existencia del hombre se promueve a través de los emprendedores. Si el emprendimiento se hace con conciencia de comunidad, de destino, los procesos productivos, culturales y comunicativos se desarrollan en el planeta tierra de forma enraizada. Desde esta perspectiva, se aborda el emprendimiento en América latina, la adaptación tecnológica, la autopoiesis cultural como un modo de transformación de sistemas sociales en las sociedades contemporáneas."
  • Journal Article
    La Construcción del Texto en la Investigación Social
    (2019) Cáceres Acosta, Aristóbulo
    "El lenguaje es el instrumento primordial del hombre, mediante el cual comunica su pensamiento de la vida cotidiana y el pensamiento científico. De allí que la configuración de ambas dimensiones estarán sujetas a la construcción de un discurso que se materializa en el texto. En este sentido, en la construcción del texto en la investigación social, el investigador debe apropiarse de un lenguaje, de un discurso propiamente dicho. De manera que los planteamientos o enfoques científicos están mediados por creencias personales y sociales conectadas y refractadas entre sí, formando una red compleja dentro de la dinámica de conocer y transmitir qué se manifiesta en el interior de un universo textual que lo condiciona y lo dinamiza."
  • Journal Article
    Relaciones Internacionales y Bienestar Ciudadano: Revisión del Contexto Latinoamericano y Peruano
    (2019) Barrutia Barreto, Ana María
    Las Relaciones Internacionales, desde el inicio de los tiempos, se han enmarcado dentro de complejos contextos. En la investigación se hace una revisión y análisis conceptual de las Relaciones Internacionales y su influencia en el bienestar de los ciudadanos. Se analiza América Latina y específicamente Perú y su visión de liderazgo en la cooperación internacional. Los planteamientos epistemológicos de las Relaciones Internacionales se inclinan por las teorías positivistas y post-positivistas, donde la vertiente constructivista surge con más relevancia en relación al bienestar ciudadano. Perú, se encuentra en una posición de liderazgo indiscutible en la región y a nivel global.
  • Journal Article
    La Ecopedagogía en la Construcción de la Ciudadanía: Una Revisión
    (2019) Marín Velásquez, Tomás Darío
    "Las relaciones del hombre con su ambiente, no han sido siempre del todo armoniosas. El aumento de la población, el desarrollo de las industrias, la necesidad cada vez mayor de energía y el desarrollo de la tecnología, ha generado una sobre explotación de recursos naturales, tendiente a daños, que en muchos casos, son irreversibles sobre el ambiente. La educación ambiental se presenta como la punta de lanza en la formación de un ciudadano con conciencia ambiental, que permita minimizar y en algunos casos mitigar los impactos negativos al ambiente, de allí que la ecopedagogía como paradigma emergente, se perfila de importancia fundamental. El presente estudio de revisión, se realizó con un esquema de investigación documental, donde se revisaron 65 documentos, entre artículos científicos publicados en revistas indexadas, capítulos de libros, ponencias en congresos, documentos académicos y libros electrónicos. Es imperante, que el nuevo ciudadano ambiental planetario, sea formado bajo los preceptos fundamentales del desarrollo sostenible, con conciencia social, ambiental y cultural, hacia un verdadero sentido de pertenencia hacia la madre tierra, de la cual el ser humano es parte. Es allí donde la ecopedagogía, se presenta como la alternativa real para la creación del nuevo ciudadano ambiental planetario, en sustitución de la educación ambiental tradicional."
  • Journal Article
    La Disrupción en la Enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales. Una Mirada Fenomenológica
    (2019) Viña, Carmen Milagro
    "En la era de las TICs los conceptos y proposiciones que daban cuenta de lo social degeneran al enfrentar multiplicidad de significados, amenazando la esencia del signo o relegándolo al anquilosamiento. Es entonces cuando el rol del docente de las Ciencias Sociales confronta el histórico reto de abandonar la racionalidad moderna, liberándose de los prejuicios para abrir paso a una renovada hermenéutica de lo social, con el concurso de los noveles actores con quienes comparte escenario. El ejercicio pedagógico se complejiza aún más durante el abordaje del fenómeno en la fase del proyecto previo por cuanto las representaciones sociales son escurridizas en la era de la información. En este complejo escenario se aborda el tema de la disrupción en la enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales desde la fenomenología heideggeriana en un ejercicio de reflexibilidad sobre el fenómeno hermenéutico disruptivo en el ámbito de la enseñanza de las Ciencias Sociales."
  • Journal Article
    Las Ciencias Sociales: Una Ventana de Representaciones Multidisciplinarias
    (2019) Barrutia Barreto, Israel
    "Las ciencias sociales están marcadas por la multidisciplinariedad, en tanto abarca diversas disciplinas intelectuales que intentan dar respuestas a numerosas problemáticas del hombre en sociedad, partiendo de categorías que le brinda el método científico, sin perder de vista que la realidad circundante es dinámica y cambiante, en tanto los seres humanos viven en una metamorfosis del ser y del hacer que los vuelve materia, centro y espacio de estudio y reflexión."
  • Journal Article
    Biodiversidad de Semillas Comunes e Inseparables de su Comunalidad
    (2022) Castro-Colina, Libertad
    "La diversidad de semillas, su comunalidad (campesinos) y sus prácticas locales (milpa y ejido) son comunes que pueden ser influidos por contextos no locales (ciencia y regulación). A través de un análisis basado en los ocho principios de diseño de instituciones comunes de Elinor Ostrom, este estudio concluyó que la ciencia con perspectivas agroecológicas apoya a la sabiduría milenaria de la milpa, mientras que la ciencia con un enfoque alineado a la Revolución Verde no. Además, la mayor parte de la legislación analizada es considerada como un obstáculo para la estabilidad del común."
  • Journal Article
    Importance of Manual Classification in ICT age
    (2022) Aragabye, Marcus
    "The purpose of this study is to emphasize the reasons why manual classification of information materials should not be abandoned in current ICT era, particularly in Nigeria. Libraries are no exception to ICT applications, and we can observe how they have already altered library services and activities. Also, Information Technology (IT) has made it presence in almost every sphere of human activity including the library practice but to have fully automated classification scheme is yet to be implemented. Library operation, such as cataloging, reference service, and the rest has a feel of this. For example, ICT has incorporated copy cataloguing into cataloguing operations, which libraries now employ instead of manual cataloging and also the arrival of online public access cataloguing (OPAC) was influenced by ICT, but this has not been fully infused into classification operations, which has kept the manual system of classification alive even in the face of ICT. Manual classification, on the other hand, cannot be abandoned because it is fundamental to the profession of librarianship. The classification of information resources is a foundation upon which librarianship is built, making classification a system as old as the library itself, as well as a practice that is unaffected by technological innovation. In addition, there are a variety of reasons in Nigeria that support the continued use of manual classification of information resources in the face of ICT. As a result, in this study we attempted to see the necessity of manual classification as well as the limitations of ICT in classification and the availing of manual classification in Nigeria."
  • Journal Article
    Pivotal Role of ICT in Records and Archives Management
    (2022) Aragbaye, Marcus; Akande, Emmanuel; Folarin, Aishat; Awe, Oluwaseyi; Isiaq, Mideenuhy; Badmus, Abdullah; Akinwale, Adebukola; Annune, Doocivir; Akorede, Shukurot
    "Record keeping is an ancient art that has survived in human activities for millennia, becoming ingrained in their everyday routines. Records that are well-maintained are an important element of an individual's or organization's memory. Many of the records are saved as event logs, transaction logs, and decision logs. The significance of preserving records, particularly when it comes to archiving them is largely concerned with managing the evidence of an organisation's actions as well as the reduction or mitigation of risk connected with it, and is part of an organisation's wider role of governance, risk management, and compliance (Tarantino, 2008). Records and archive management is a process that is unique to each individual and corporate entity though it may not be entirely evident in its formality. It is committed to the management of information throughout its life cycle that is from creation to final disposition or archive. The procedure includes identifying, classifying, storing, protecting, retrieving, tracking, and deleting or permanently preserving records. It is clear that change, which is thought to be constant, has found its way into conventional methods of record and archive management by incorporating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into the system, with the result being a tremendous effect for future generations to study and enjoy. Therefore, this paper set to discuss the 'The Pivotal Role of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Record and Archive Management.' The topic is presented in segments for well detailed write-up and better understanding. Sub-topics or segments of the topic were discussed in the following."
  • Journal Article
    Optimization in Apparel Supply Chain Using Artificial Neural Network
    (2022) Ahmad, Shibbir; Kamruzzaman, Mohammad
    Labour costs in the apparel manufacturing industry in Bangladesh have increased dramatically. Hence, there is no alternative way to optimize the apparel supply chain to survive in the competitive market. In this study, we implemented artificial neural networks (ANN) in apparel manufacturing organizations to optimize the supply chain by convergent on the right supplier selection by analyzing their performance criteria. Moreover, data was collected from three different factories to analyze the efficiency and profit-loss status of their units. Furthermore, analyze the supplier selection criteria of three suppliers in order to select the right supplier at the right time in the apparel manufacturing industry. This study shows that it can save 18% of the total cost. Additionally, the mathematical analysis has been performed to validate the data analysis for the right supplier selection based on the performance criteria.
  • Journal Article
    Influence of Self-esteem, Psychological Empowerment, and Empowering Leader Behaviors on Assertive Behaviors of Staff Nurses
    (2021) Oducado, Ryan Michael
    "Being assertive is essential skill nurses need to learn and develop. While many studies exist on nurses’ assertiveness, there is limited research on the factors associated with Filipino nurses’ assertive behaviors. This study examined the correlation of self-esteem, psychological empowerment, and leader empowering behaviors on staff nurses’ assertiveness in the workplace. This cross-sectional study conducted in 2019 involved 223 staff nurses working in two tertiary hospitals in the Philippines. Data were gathered using four validated self-reported scales: self-esteem scale, psychological empowerment scale, leader empowering behavior questionnaire, and workplace assertive behavior questionnaire. Correlational analysis using Pearson’s r was performed to test the relationship between the key variables. The composite scores for the self-esteem, psychological empowerment, empowering leader behaviors, and workplace assertiveness were 32.06 (SD = 3.65), 4.22 (SD = 0.43), 3.86 (SD = 0.51) and 3.61 (SD = 0.55), respectively. Self-esteem (r = 0.216; p = 0.001), psychological empowerment (r = 0.455, p = 0.000), and empowering leader behaviors (r = 0.269; p = 0.000) were significantly correlated with staff nurses’ assertiveness in the workplace. Self-esteem, nurse leadership behaviors, and empowerment play vital roles in staff nurses’ assertiveness. Understanding the factors influencing nurses’ assertiveness is important, and looking into these variables can be beneficial for nursing management when developing strategies to build nurses’ assertiveness. Thus, it is vital to focus on helping nurses nurture healthy self-esteem and initiate empowering conditions at work to aid nurses in setting healthy boundaries and supporting assertive behaviors at work."
  • Journal Article
    Effects of Uniform-allocation Constraints in Networked Common-pool Resource Extraction Games
    (2022) Schauf, Andrew; Oh, Poong
    "Communities that share common-pool resources (CPRs) often coordinate their actions to sustain resource quality more effectively than if they were regulated by some centralized authority. Networked models of CPR extraction suggest that the flexibility of individual agents to selectively allocate extraction effort among multiple resources plays an important role in maximizing their payoffs. However, empirical evidence suggests that real-world CPR appropriators may often de-emphasize issues of allocation, for example by responding to the degradation of a single resource by reducing extraction from multiple resources, rather than by reallocating extraction effort away from the degraded resource. Here, we study the population-level consequences that emerge when individuals are constrained to apply an equal amount of extraction effort to all CPRs that are available to them within an affiliation network linking agents to resources. In systems where all resources have the same capacity, this uniform-allocation constraint leads to reduced collective wealth compared to unconstrained best-response extraction, but it can produce more egalitarian wealth distributions. The differences are more pronounced in networks that have higher degree heterogeneity among resources. In the case that the capacity of each CPR is proportional to its number of appropriators, the uniform-allocation constraint can lead to more efficient collective extraction since it serves to distribute the burden of over-extraction more evenly among the network’s CPRs. Our results reinforce the importance of adaptive allocation in self-regulation for populations who share linearly degrading CPRs; although uniform-allocation extraction habits can help to sustain higher resource quality than does unconstrained extraction, in general this does not improve collective benefits for a population in the long term."
  • Journal Article
    Dire Necessity or Mere Opportunity? Recurrent Peat Commercialisation from Raised Bog Commons in the Early Modern Low Countries
    (2021) Paulissen, Maurice; Van Beek, Roy; Nekrassoff, Serge; Huijbens, Edward H.; Spek, Theo
    Commercialisation of resources taken from commons is considered problematic in several ways in traditional commons scholarship. In particular common-pool resource (CPR) theory argues that institutions for collective action such as commons are largely autonomous, experiencing little influence from either the market or the state, and focusing only on the needs of entitled (local) communities. Consequently, commercialisation and sustainable collective use of common-pool resources are largely considered incompatible. Moreover, the dominant focus of CPR theory is on renewable resources rather than non-renewable resources such as peat. Although commons scholarship has broadened over the last decades and come to more nuanced views on the state-market-common trichotomy, our study adds historical depth and does pay attention to peat as a valuable non-renewable resource. We analyse historical sources on two cases of peat commercialisation from raised bog commons in the early modern Low Countries: the Bakelse gemeint in the Dutch Peel region, and the commune de Xhoffraix in the Belgian Hautes-Fagnes. In terms of volume, the share of commercialised peat in the total peat exploitation was limited; the significance of peat commercialisation lay in its permanence, recurrence, and/or regional outreach. Taxes and high debts placed communities in dire financial straits, which was one of the motives for peat commercialisation. In addition, state institutions could intervene in commons management if there was an (internal) conflict. Sources indicate that these institutions had a pragmatic attitude towards peat commercialisation, probably to foster social harmony and local prosperity in times of resource contestation and economic hardship. This study adds a novel intermediate category of peat exploitation to the traditional binary subdivision in domestic peat extraction from commons versus large-scale commercial exploitation of privatised bogs. We demonstrate that long-term use of common-pool resources could go together with a moderate degree of commercialisation. Rather than being fully autonomous, commons in the early modern Low Countries were – permanently or at times of internal conflict – clearly impacted by markets, notions of private user rights, and state institutions.
  • Journal Article
    The Internationalization of Higher Education in Armenia Nowadays the Analysis of the Existing Problems
    (2021) Aperyan, Yevgine
    "Internationalization is a rapidly growing trend among the higher education system around the world. Academic and research institutions demonstrate a growing interest in the processes of internationalization of higher education, at the international, regional, national, and institutional levels. Internationalization and global engagement are becoming key trends in the development of national systems of education in Armenia and abroad. Numerous researchers have highlighted the problematics of internationalization of higher education associated with the cultural impact of university education, a synergy of humanitarian and natural sciences, intercultural communication, digital and blended learning, international credit and degree mobility, the introduction of international standards for measuring the quality of education defined by the Bologna Declaration. Although internationalization has become established in education at the international level, it should be realized that at the moment there is no single policy or strategy for the internationalization of the higher education system in Armenia, both at the regional and national levels. The lack of uniform strategy is in some way offset at the institutional level: the increasing number of Armenian higher education institutions have integrated internationalization, to varying degrees, in their mission and vision. It can be seen in the activities of the leading universities in Armenia. The global knowledge economy requires all universities to be the competitors for students, faculties, strategic partnerships, and research funding, as well as to prepare their graduates to be global professionals, scholars, highly demanded and competitive. Indicating the mechanism of the implementation of an international component into the existing curricula, programs, research, teaching, and learning processes may contribute to the understanding of the process of internationalization of higher education. Thus, more research is needed on the experience of Armenia and other countries in implementing the provisions of the Bologna process. The purpose of this article is to examine the theoretical and practical aspects of the internationalization process, identifying some challenges and obstacles for the Armenian higher education system and presenting possible ways of overcoming them."
  • Journal Article
    Modernity, the Commons and Capitalism
    (2020) Skouras, George
    "The modern way of life and reflected in modern political philosophy is directed by capitalist activity of both commodities and persons. Entities that do not have commodity value are worthless to the capitalist enterprise, regardless of any intrinsic value in themselves. Modernity is capitalist modernity. Modernity has given preference for objects/commodities over persons. This paper will argue for opening-up the landscape for alternative experiences to capitalism, as an attempt to move away from the capitalist enterprise. That is, be able to provide open space for people to use other than the buying and selling of commodities---where the commodification process breaks down and opens-up spaces for alternative experiences besides the capitalist experience. In other words, this work will attempt to serve as critique of Enlightenment philosophical discourse---that is, serve as a critique of the Age of Enlightenment serving as the foundational head of modernism---a plea for the rebellion against the quantification and mathematization of reality under modernist and industrial societies. It will use the modern landscape as the first effort to break free from the capitalist enterprise."
  • Journal Article
    Conservation and Care among the Cofán in the Ecuadorian Amazon
    (2021) Esbach, Michael; Lu, Flora; Borman Quenama, Felipe
    "Accelerating deforestation and ecological degradation, linked to political and economic policies and agendas that endanger the health, well-being, and cultural survival of Indigenous people, present dire threats to the Amazonian biome and its inhabitants. Confronting these challenges necessitates a unified response by local and global partners. However, some conservationists, predominantly from the Global North, have perpetuated problematic, essentialised framings of Indigenous communities, which have even led them to advocate for punitive protectionist policies that we argue are morally and conceptually flawed. Western scientific and popular discourse often presents nature conservation via protected areas as a universal good. In this article, we argue for a more pluralistic approach; one that calls for an equitable footing between Indigenous knowledge and sustainability science. We examine a case study of the Cofán community of Zábalo in the Ecuadorian Amazon, where collective efforts to tsampima coiraye (care for the forest) have resulted in dynamic institutions adapted to diverse challenges and opportunities. Tsampima coiraye exemplifies a form of caretaking that is distinct from and complementary to Western conservation, one that provides important insights into understanding the context and meanings through which community governance fosters stewardship. We draw upon longitudinal ethnographic fieldwork and the Cofán concept of puifama atesuye (Two-World Knowledge) to describe collective action, community governance, and caretaking."
  • Journal Article
    Consumer Renaissance in Alternative Agri-Food Networks Between Collective Action and Co-Production
    (2022) Sacchi, Giovanna; Stefani, Gianluca; Romano, Donato; Nocella, Giuseppe
    "In recent years, a dramatic increase in Alternative Agri-Food Networks (AAFNs) has been interpreted by experts of the sector as triggered by innovative food supply chains capable to reconnect producers with consumers. Simultaneously, the worldwide growth of consumers’ initiatives towards AAFNs is reducing the distance with producers shortening the supply chain and enhancing its value added. Examples of these consumers’ experiences have been reported in Japan, Europe, the USA, and Canada, and differ according to the degree of participants’ commitment to the logistics and the management of the initiatives. In general terms, these experiences could represent instances of co-production practices involving thousands of citizens who are seeking quality, sustainable, healthy, and ethical products and services reducing the uncertainty of food credence attributes. In this framework, the overall objective of this paper is to contribute to the scanty literature on food associations and cooperatives co-producing private goods with citizens contributing to marketing services such as procurement, storage, pricing, and quality assurance. Specifically, the focus is on the experience of Camilla, a food consumption cooperative that recently established an outlet to stock and sell food and non-food quality goods in Bologna (Italy). Camilla is the first Italian experience of a shop self-managed by its customers - who are also the owners - who practice critical consumption by supplying organic products at fair and sustainable prices while promoting small local productions as well as Fair Trade products. A deep, participatory, and immersive ethnographic project was carried out between January and October 2019 to understand the functioning, the motivations and the drivers underpinning the process of citizens’ self-organisation in the domain of the food sector. Results provide useful insights on the way in which these innovative AAFNs are organised and on the reasons pushing people to join these initiatives. Key questions emerging from outcomes of the Camilla case study are discussed from an empirical and theoretical point of view."
  • Journal Article
    Adaptation Strategies and Collective Dynamics of Extraction in Networked Commons of Bistable Resources
    (2021) Schauf, Andrew; Oh, Poong
    "When populations share common-pool resources (CPRs), individuals decide how much effort to invest towards resource extraction and how to allocate this effort among available resources. We investigate these dual aspects of individual choice in networked games where resources undergo regime shifts between discrete quality states (viable or depleted) depending on collective extraction levels. We study the patterns of extraction that emerge on various network types when agents are free to vary extraction from each CPR separately to maximize their short-term payoffs. Using these results as a basis for comparison, we then investigate how results are altered if agents fix one aspect of adaptation (magnitude or allocation) while letting the other vary. We consider two constrained adaptation strategies: uniform adaptation, whereby agents adjust their extraction levels from all CPRs by the same amount, and reallocation, whereby agents selectively shift effort from lower- to higher-quality resources. A preference for uniform adaptation increases collective wealth on degree-heterogeneous agent-resource networks. Further, low-degree agents retain preferences for these constrained strategies under reinforcement learning. Empirical studies have indicated that some CPR appropriators ignore—while others emphasize—allocation aspects of adaptation; our results demonstrate that structural patterns of resource access can determine which behavior is more advantageous."
  • Journal Article
    Relationship Between Lineaments and Groundwater Potential: A Case Study of Kunya Sheet 58SW, Northwestern Nigeria
    (2020) Dandago, Kamal Abba
    "Water pollution is a major challenge amongst all other types of pollution. A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water happens to stay or move and interact are responsible for this. The research was undertaken in the basement complex area of Kano State to determine the hydrochemistry of Jakara reservoir and the groundwater of surrounding areas. Geological and hydrogeological mappings were carried out on scale of 1:50,000. Measurements of the depth to groundwater table in hand dug wells were carried out during hydrogeological mapping using calibrated tape and the data was used to produce the hydrogeological maps of the study area. Surface and groundwater samples were collected during peak of dry season hydrogeological mapping and sent to various laboratories for chemical analysis. Parameters of physical quality of the water sample were measured in – situ. Aquachem 2014, version 2 software was used to analyze the chemical analytical data of the samples. The geological map of the area was updated where two rock types namely: coarse – porphyritic hornblende granite, sands and clays were mapped and studied. Samples of these rocks were collected and analyzed in thin section laboratory. Intrusive bodies such as quartz veins and aplitic dykes as well as geologic structures like faults and joints were mapped. The regional strike direction of the lineaments is dominantly N – S. Others are observed to be trending in the NNW - SSE with few trending NE - SW directions. 54% of the total groundwater samples analyzed belongs to Ca+2 (Mg+2) Cl- (SO4- 2). Surface water samples analyses shows 100% of the samples belong to Na+ (K+) Cl- (SO4-2) water type with prevailing sulphate and chloride. Results for chemical analyses of the reservoir water and groundwater samples of surrounding areas indicates the presence of some toxic elements such as cadmium (Cd++), lead (Pb++), manganese (Mn++), total iron (Fe), bromine (Br-), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg++), and calcium (Ca++) at concentrations above Nigerian Industrial Standard (2007) and World Health Organizations (2011) maximum permitted levels. This is a dangerous trend because these pollutants are very dangerous to both human and aquatic life. The primary sources of these elements are domestic and industrial wastes that are being discharged without proper treatment into open water bodies like the Jakara river in addition to geological factors such as weathering of rock materials. Jakara river is perennial because it receives most of its recharge from domestic effluents, municipal waste, Getsi stream, Tokarawa stream and other minor streams whose main recharge come from the Bompai and Tokarawa industrial areas respectively. These are the main sources of the pollutants. The Jakara stream ultimately drains its water into the Jakara reservoir, as a result of which making the reservoir heavily polluted. Consequently, this might have affected the chemical composition of groundwater resource of surrounding areas. Effective waste management and disposal policy need to be employed by the concerned authorities to curtail these unregulated methods of domestic and industrial waste disposal in Kano State, Northwest Nigeria."
  • Journal Article
    Developing a Measure of Social, Ethical, and Legal Content for Intelligent Cognitive Assistants
    (2021) Hamilton, Clovia; Swart, William; Stokes, Gerald M.
    "We address the issue of consumer privacy against the backdrop of the national priority of maintaining global leadership in artificial intelligence, the ongoing research in Artificial Cognitive Assistants, and the explosive growth in the development and application of Voice Activated Personal Assistants (VAPAs) such as Alexa and Siri, spurred on by the needs and opportunities arising out of the COVID-19 global pandemic. We first review the growth and associated legal issues of the of VAPAs in private homes, banks, healthcare, and education. We then summarize the policy guidelines for the development of VAPAs. Then, we classify these into five major categories with associated traits. We follow by developing a relative importance weight for each of the traits and categories; and suggest the establishment of a rating system related to the legal, ethical, functional, and social content policy guidelines established by these organizations. We suggest the establishment of an agency that will use the proposed rating system to inform customers of the implications of adopting a particular VAPA in their sphere."
  • Journal Article
    Reimagining China’s Transportation Funding Investments in Africa in the Context of COVID-1
    (2021) Hamilton, Clovia; Maliphol, Sira
    "Africa has not invested enough in its healthcare system, and China has been investing in and financing much of Africa’s transportation system. Many African countries’ fragile health and transportation systems have been further weakened by the COVID-19 pandemic. This literature review confirms the interdependence of the key functional areas of comprehensive development planning and the importance of building and maintaining a sound transportation infrastructure. With respect to partnerships with China, African nations need to strengthen government functional areas more comprehensively, considering all of the areas of development planning including trade as well as transportation and aid issues. It is all the more apparent given the COVID-19 pandemic that these trade deals need to include simultaneous heavy investments in healthcare, education, housing, public utilities (water and electricity), and economic development through improved supply chain management and the use of advanced digital technology. In addition to the deal structures for China’s investments in Africa’s transportation infrastructure, there are also opportunities to reimagine the African nations’ internal transportation spending. For example, there are models in the United States for using transportation funds to invest in health clinics in transit stations. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought this issue to bear, and it is a problem that can be rectified with ‘comprehensive’ development planning that takes into account all of the key functional areas of planning: healthcare, environmental protection, safety, education, housing, economic development, and transportation. Five recommendations follow the literature review and discussion."
  • Journal Article
    Appropriation of Artisans' Intellectual Property in Fashion Design Accessories: Piracy Disguised as Giving Back?
    (2021) Hamilton, Clovia
    "Creative industries are industries focused on the creation and exploitation of intellectual property, including art, fashion design, and related creative services, such as advertisement and sales. During a trip to Burkina Faso in West Africa, Keri Fosse was taught by an African woman how to wrap newborns with fabric in a manner that creates a strong bond and frees the mother’s hands for other tasks. Burkina Faso has a craft culture and is known for its woven cotton and the textile art of Bogolan. Bogolan is a technique original to and involves the tradition of dyeing threads with bright colors, washing it skillfully, using coated and shiny Bazin, and using indigo from Benin. After this trip, Fosse and her husband developed a shirt which copies the African lady’s, Lalabu’s, technique. They developed a product called Soothe Shirt; and created a business called Lalabu. Lalabu is also the name of the African woman that the Fosses met. They have been successful. The Fosses have stated that they got the idea from Lalabu, but redesigned it for production. The couple advertises that they “giving back” by giving 2% percent of each purchase to help female African entrepreneurs through microfinancing. By offering micro-loans, the Fosses claim that when the African women repay the loan, they reinvest the money into the micro loan fund. This study advocates that practices like the Fosses’ are not representative of socially responsible entrepreneurial endeavors. Instead, these are instances of intellectual property piracy. The following sections are a discussion of the relevant legal foundation, theoretical foundation, and existing best practices. With respect to best practices, what is missing is shared ownership. Although the open appropriation of fashion designs may he commonplace in America, the appropriation of cultural artisan crafts created in other countries by Americans beg special attention."
  • Journal Article
    Increasing Diversity among Women Entrepreneurs in High Growth High Tech Using HBCU Female Academic Entrepreneurs
    (2020) Hamilton, Clovia
    "There is a concentrated number of potential women entrepreneurs of diverse races among faculty in the United States’ Historically Black Colleges and Universities (known as HBCUs and are called ‘Black Colleges’ herein). This study describes the potential for developing university technology transfer in these Black Colleges as a strategy for increasing diversity among women entrepreneurs in high growth, high tech fields using female academic entrepreneurs. Currently, Black Colleges lag behind their peer non-Black Colleges in technology transfer because historically they have been under, served and were originally established largely as teaching and blue-collar trade schools. Although Black female STEM faculty comprised less than 2% of the US faculty, they are 22% at HBCUs (Mack, 2011). Using a novel theoretical framework, 24 Black Colleges with doctoral programs were compared to five (5) non-Black Colleges’ technology transfer programs. The results of a correlation analysis support hypotheses regarding the relationships between tech transfer resource inputs and outputs. It was discovered that the size of technology transfer support and licensing staff relates to the number of invention disclosures and startup formations. The amount of legal support investments did not relate to the number of licensing agreements. Further, the amount of legal support investments or patent applications filed did not relate to faculty size per program. The number of licensing agreements did positively relate to faculty size per program. Further, faculty size per program and total research expenditures positively related to total licensing agreements. There was no support for the hypothesis that the relationship between non-tenured faculty would be negatively correlated to the number of licensing agreements and start-up business formations. Publications, honors and awards are some measures of faculty quality. Gross licensing income did not correlate to the amount of faculty publications or percent of faculty with honors and awards. Interestingly, the number of invention disclosures, patent applications filed, or percent of faculty with honors and awards did not correlate to faculty with research grants. Instead, revenue from licensing and publication citations were related positively to faculty with research grants. Lastly, the more female faculty researchers there are, the more faculty honors and awards, gross licensing income and number of start-ups. These findings were used to develop a model intellectual property (IP) policy for Black Colleges. The Model IP policies can help these institutions improve their technology transfer and academic entrepreneurship endeavors. Ultimately, this will likely increase the diversity of women researchers, inventors and academic entrepreneurs in high growth, high tech fields."