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  • Conference Paper
    Social and Environmental Impacts of Constitutional Amendment 95 in Brasil: Should the Budget be Understood as a Common Resource?
    (2019) Malinverni da Silveira, Clóvis Eduardo; Machado, Vagner Gomes
    "In this paper we seek to study federal public budget as a common good, that is, something that should not be understood as a resource belonging to anyone, but to the general public, in a collective way. Since the State represents, at least in theory, the public interest, it is assumed that state decisions regarding public budget correspond to the interests of society. In many cases, like that of Constitutional Amendment 95 in Brazil, this reasoning is clearly false. Applying the commons paradigm to this subject provides an interesting conceptual tool to question the way that public budget is managed. Brazilian Constitutional Amendment 95 was enacted on December 15th, 2016. There were large popular demonstrations against its approval by National Congress. Popular dissatisfaction results from the fact that the Amendment changed the rules for the budget planning, imposing a limit on almost all expenses related to provision of social services and investments for 20 years, so that the next five governments will not be able to make relevant decisions on social and envirmental areas. The limit became effective in 2017 having taken as reference the value corresponding to primary public expenditures of Federal Government in 2016, plus the inflation rate. This method is going to be used until 2036. It means that real public investments are going to be frozen up to 2036. That means a continuous dismantling of the public structures which serve the public in general (such as public health, education and environmental policies). Through this research we try to understand social and environmental impacts of Constitutional Amendment 95 from the point of view of the theoretical discussions about the commons. In other words, we seek to study this political and legal phenomenon considering the public budget as a common good. The method consists primarily of a bibliographical research on specific references to the amendment, followed by a documentary research, analyzing an array of government technical reports. We intent to organize, interpret and analyze data about public budget from the past years, as well as planned government expenditures for the years to come. We focused on the “thematic analysis”, suggested by Minayo’s (2014, p. 207), by which the following steps are performed: pre-analysis (floating reading, constitution of the corpus, hypothesis formulation); exploitation of the material (coding, classification, aggregation of data). The preliminary results suggest that the Brazilian public budget is controlled by financial interests opposed to the interests of the general public, in such a way that public power sometimes acts as a guarantor of private interests. Since the budget is not state property but a society-wide resource, we postulate that it should be managed for the benefit of society, with a more direct participation of the community in decision making, as well as developing forms of controlling decisions of public agents."
  • Conference Paper
    The Unique U.S. Legal Battle over Governance of Internet-Related Services
    (2019) Cherry, Barbara A.
    "In the U.S., the regulatory jurisdiction of the federal and state governments over services provided through the Internet is in flux and has become increasingly unstable. This instability is exemplified by the network neutrality debate, which has become a legal battle over classification of broadband Internet access services as a 'telecommunications service' or 'information service' under the federal Communications Act of 1934, as amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996. In pursuit of deregulatory policies – whether sought by policymakers or entities seeking to avoid regulation – service classification has become the focal legal tactic to avoid federal and state government regulation. The instability of service classification of broadband Internet access services by the FCC has shifted back and forth since about 2000, depending upon whether the majority of FCC commissioners has been appointed by the Republican or Democratic Party. This same legal tactic of focusing on service classification is also being utilized to challenge the scope of federal and state regulatory authority over interconnected voice-over-Internet Protocol service (I-VOIP), which consumers find indistinguishable from traditional, time-division multiplexing (TDM-based) voice telecommunications services. However, the legal battle over classification of I-VOIP is of less prominence in the popular press or public awareness — at least in part, from the relatively lower profile of the classification issue before the FCC. The FCC started a proceeding to address classification of I-VOIP in 2004 in IP-Enabled Services, 19 FCC Rcd. 4863 (2004), but the proceeding is still pending. Rather, the issue has recently been litigated in a case before the federal 8th Circuit Court of Appeals, Charter Advanced Services v. Nancy Lange, in her official capacity as Chair of the Minnesota Public Utilities Commission, No. 17-2290 (hereinafter 'Charter Advanced Services v. MN PUC'). In September 2018, the 8th Circuit Court upheld a federal district ruling, finding that Charter Advanced Services’ I-VOIP service is an “information service” under federal law, and is thereby preempted from Minnesota state regulation. This is the first decision by any federal Circuit Court of Appeal as to the ruling of service classification of I-VOIP service. The MN PUC filed a petition for rehearing en banc before the 8th Circuit Court of Appeals, which was denied in December 2018. Through success of this legal tactic of service classification, businesses based on provision of services through the Internet have been emboldened to manipulate technical aspects of providing service for the purpose of avoiding regulation. Taken to the limit, this could lead to a de facto repeal of telecommunications service regulation. As to potential governance of the 'Internet of Everything', it is critical that discussion proceed from awareness of this U.S. legal landscape and context, which affects not only U.S. regulation but U.S. participation in or impact on international governance developments."
  • Conference Paper
    The Kamaiurá Brazilian Indigenous People and Sustainable Development
    (2015) Curi, Melissa Volpato
    "This study aims to analyze the importance of the recognition of legal pluralism in promotion of cultural and environmental sustainability. Through the Legal Anthropology discipline, we intend to present some of the standards of the Brazilian indigenous people Kamaiurá, concerning land use and the use of natural resources. The Kamaiurá people live in the southern part of the Xingu Indigenous Park, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso and have a population of approximately 523 people. They are part of the Tupi linguistic branch and speak the indigenous language Kamaiurá. Due to their contact with non-indigenous people, most of the population also speaks Portuguese. Despite the presence of some Western values, such as consumer goods - clothes, motorcycles, stereos etc., the Kamaiurá people preserve their social organization and their unique way of relating to the natural environment. To understand a little of the Kamaiurá universe, it is necessary to understand the importance of myths to these indigenous people. They not only permeate through the collective imagination, but define rules and establish the way of life in the village. The respect they have for natural resources is connected to this mythological universe. The preservation of resources comes from a very close relationship they establish with nature, which is defined not only by dependency aspects, but mostly by the primary meaning of myths and Kamaiurá beliefs. Many plants and animals, for example, have spirits in the myths and they act directly on the social environment. In this sense, it is intrinsic in the indigenous nature to use natural resources sustainably, as they support them physically and culturally. It is common in some Kamaiurá myths to have marriages between Indians and animals, showing that they are treated as human equals. The Kamaiurá territory is collective. Although the Brazilian Federal Constitution does not recognize the indigenous property rights over their land, but rather only the right of possession, internally, there is no such distinction. Each village location is historically linked to its inhabitants. The territory identifies the indigenous people because of the memory of ancestors and the natural resources necessary for the maintenance of their socio-cultural survival. Among the Kamaiurá values is to care of individual goods, such as a fruit tree, as well as collective goods such as rivers, lakes and forests. Prioritizing the well-being of the community, the Kamaiurá indigenous people continue to adjust their rules and operate regardless of state authoritative presence. Considering the traditional way of life of indigenous peoples, recognition and respect of their own values are closely related to sustainable development, ensuring that both the environment and richness of cultural diversity is preserved."
  • Conference Paper
    Incentives, Foreign Assistance, and Fiscal Behaviour in Less Developed Countries
    (2002) Bartels, P. Brian
    "Current foreign assistance effectiveness research focuses primarily on the relationships between aid receipts and overall changes in a less developed country's macroeconomic conditions. The majority of the literature develops and tests mathematical models to measure the strength of relationship between foreign assistance receipts and economic growth. Unfortunately, this approach to aid effectiveness research is deficient in two ways. First, the current literature does not accord sufficient consideration to the role of institutions and institutional arrangements in determining how recipient governments allocate, disperse, and monitor foreign assistance expenditures. Although recipient countries vary in the type, strength, and organization of their institutions, current models fail to consider the mediating and channeling roles institutions perform that could influence the effectiveness of foreign assistance. The existing literature fails to account for how decision-makers' behavior varies within different institutional arrangements."
  • Conference Paper
    A Theory of Voluntary Pooled Public Knowledge Goods and Coalition Formation
    (2013) Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; Ghidi, Paolo Melindi
    "In this paper we develop a theoretical model of the mechanisms behind the voluntary provision of impure public goods in coalitions in presence of important social networks effects. The model builds on the large empirical literature on coalitions for voluntary provision of pooled public knowledge goods, such as in social networks of open source software developers and consortia producing open data repositories. This literature shows that, under some conditions, the provision of public goods can be facilitated by social network effects such as group identity and social approval of individual pro-social attitudes. To integrate these effects in standard public good theory this paper follows a two-step strategy, based on the introduction of two types of impureness in standard public good theory: (1) impureness related to private excludable benefits (so-called ancillary private benefits of the public good); (2) impureness related to the satisfaction of the individuals social preferences. In a first step, the paper analyses the introduction of combined public and private benefits in coalition theory with standard preferences. In a second step the model is broadened to the case of impureness related to the social preferences. The analysis shows that, when the private benefit component of the impure public good is important, the effect of the social preferences on the coalition formation is ambiguous: with increasing/decreasing relative weight of the social approval of individual pro-social attitudes compared to the relative weight of the social group identity, the coalition size to be reached will be respectively larger/smaller compared to the coalitions formed by agents with standard preferences. Applications of the theoretical model to large-scale surveys of Free/Libre/Open-Source (FLOSS) software developers confirm the results of the model."
  • Conference Paper
    Developing Organizational Structure of Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH) Limapuluh Kota District, West Sumatra, Indonesia, for Sustainable Forest Management
    (2013) Mahdi; Arbain, Ardinis; Senatung, Mgo; Helmi
    "Government of Indonesia (GoI) has been reforming policy and beaureaucracy in forestry sector as mandated in law No 41/1999. Reform is supposed to achieve sustainable forest management through decentralization. The law also asks for involving people in planning, managing, benefit sharing, and controlling for forest management by acknowledging village customary (adat) law. GoI establishes Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH), an operational organization at district level. For a big and divers country, challenges in forest management in Indonesia are varies between district due to differences in culture, customs, economic activities and resources abundances of forest itself. Therefore, each district may have difference type of organizational structure of KPH to others. Now each district is developing its KPH that will be the bases for its future forest management. This is a good case and chance for bringing village customary law, and combining with legal state law, into formal operational-forest regulation. We assist government of Limapuluh Kota district, West Sumatra in developing its KPH, which is able to manage forest in sustainable way, improve local livelihood and reduce conflict through absorbing aspiration of all stakeholders and including adat law. We did in-depth interview with adat leaders and head of villages within and surrounding the forest to learn their claim over forest. We also organized public consultation to absorb other stakeholders aspiration. Based on the result of both interview and consultation, we structured the institution of KPH Limapuluh Kota. The organizational structure of KPH Limapuluh Kota will be submitted to local legislature for further inquiry before it is formally accepted and legalized. Hopefully, the KPH Limapuluh Kota could be formally installed in 2015, after follows next step of preparation."
  • Conference Paper
    Roles of Social Capital in Promoting Effective Management of Non-Timber Forest Products for Poverty Alleviation Around Rinjani Mountain, Lombok, Indonesia
    (2013) Abdurrahman, Muktasam
    "Poverty and forest degradation has been discussed widely for their causal relationship. Poverty has been claimed as one source among the others for continous forest degradation in West Nusa Tenggara province - Indonesia. Due to the poverty (about 25% of the total population of West Nusa Tenggara province), the communities who are living around the forest have direct and indirectly used the forest/the commons as the main source of income. They cut the trees for cash to fullfill their daily needs, and even they encroach the forest for agricultural activities. They may also work with illegal loggers from outside as labour to cut trees and get the cash to support their families. As results, some studies confirmed for continous degradation of the Rinjani forest that to some extent has led to further impacts such as the lost of springs and decreasing of watter supply, and these have affected agricultural practices. On the basis of this, it is interesting to learn what are the roles of social capital in the existing forest management, especially in helping the community to address their social and economic issues and problems through effective management of non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The main aim of this study is to understand the existence of all types of social capitals at the targeted communities and to find out the actual and expected roles of social capitals in the existing forest management, especially in managing the NTFPs. This study of the commons will be carried out at the Sasak Community who is living at the feet of Rinjani mountain (Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara province - Indonesia). Qualitative and quantitative methods will be applied for the study. Data collection will be done through observation, in-depth interview, focus group discussions and small survey."
  • Conference Paper
    Does Agency Matter and do Microfinance Self-help Groups Empower Women? A Case Study of a Joint-microfinance and Coffee Cooperative from the Mountains of the Moon in Uganda
    (2012) Selhausen, Felix Meier
    "Collective action in the form of microfinance self-help groups (SHGs) has been increasingly hailed for its positive economic impact and its empowerment of women but also for excluding those most in need of collective action. This study examines womens agency from two perspectives suggested by Amartya Sen using a case study 26 self-help groups of a joint microfinance and coffee co-operative from Western Uganda. Firstly, the study attempts to provide a new framework for exploring self-selection by comparing levels of agency of female non-SHG members and members before participation in SHGs. Results indicate that women who join and stay in SHGs are initially wealthier in terms of land than their female cohort from the community whereas autonomy over marriage and human capital formation are not systematically different. Secondly, this paper investigates the impacts of collective action on womens decisionmaking agency in particular whether length of membership matters. The paper finds that length of membership has no effect over spouses joint decision-making and income pooling but reduces wives tolerance of gender-based violence. However, other indicators such as inheritance patters, daughters age at first marriage, occurrence of domestic violence, and freedom of movement are not statistically significant, indicating that empowerment is a process of internal change of power within and behaviors that is neither lineal, nor can be achieved over night."
  • Conference Paper
    Social Networks and Institutions in Self-Governance Systems: Water Supply Management in Northwestern Senegal
    (2012) Faye, Malick
    "The present paper describes the management of a Common Pool Resource through a group characterized by distrust among actors, and discrimination or disadvantages of actors with regard to the infrastructure and positions in an elected institution. A community of seven villages in the Northwestern of Senegal manages its water supply through an elected board representative of each village. The villagers are composed of Wolof and Fulani. The former are mainly peasants, while the latter nomads. The Fulani complained about disadvantages in the use of the resource and a weak representativity in the board. Although they threatened repeatedly to depose the board, they still cooperate in the management of the resource, paying regularly the water use fees. The question is also to find out why subgroups that are or feel segregated contribute positively to the management of Common Pool resources. Results of this paper are that: the discriminated subgroup cooperates fully because the fragmentation observed on the group level is not reflected in the institution; the discriminated subgroup hardly succeeds in implementing its interests, because it is characterized itself by intern discrepancies; segregation occurs at the level of the whole group, but the institution remains rather integrative. The group structure is derived from social networks collected in the whole group (462 respondents) and in the institution (33 members) to compare subgroup behaviors according to language background and location at both levels."
  • Conference Paper
    Management Problems in Common Property Resources
    (1986) Buck, Susan J.
    "Marine fisheries are a common property resource which, because of the special biological characteristics of the resource, must be managed in multiple and often antagonistic jurisdictions. To clarify the management options peculiar to fisheries resources, a typology of common property resources is developed. The typology is then applied to Chesapeake Bay fisheries as a demonstration of the typology's usefulness in examining institutional arrangements in fisheries management."
  • Conference Paper
    Environmental Ethics with Reference to Climate Change
    (2011) Chavan, Balbhim L.
    "Climate change is an ultimate effect of rapid and unplanned industrialization. The human society is facing this problem mainly due to environmental degradation caused by variety of developmental but unsustainable destructing activities. There is an urgent need to stop further degradation of nature or at least keep it under control by adopting the concepts of environmental ethics. Environmental ethics are capable to control our social, moral and scientific behaviors and promote the sustainable lifestyle. They promote us towards the nature concerning what is right or what is wrong giving equal opportunities to compete for the comfort and richness of the world for all life forms in a sustainable way. There are several spiritual approaches to environmental ethics which can play major role in controlling the current trend of climate change. The present paper deals with certain principles capable of controlling the climate change which are recognized as environmental ethics. Such ethical justifications are discussed with reference to moral sense, spiritual thinking and practical utility on the grounds of present need and the future generations."
  • Conference Paper
    Roman Water Law in Rural Africa: Dispossession, Discrimination and Weakening State Regulation?
    (2011) Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Der Zaag, Pieter; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Tapela, Barbara; Mapedza, Everisto
    "The recent water law reforms in Africa, Latin America and elsewhere strengthen permit systems. This water rights regime is rooted in Roman water law. The European colonial powers introduced this law in their colonies, especially in Latin America and later also in Sub-Saharan Africa. By declaring most waters as being public waters, they vested ownership of water resources in their overseas kings. This dispossessed indigenous peoples from their prior claims to water, while the new formal water rights (or permits) were reserved for colonial allies. At independence, ownership of water resources shifted to the new governments but the nature of the water laws, including the formal cancellation of indigenous water rights regimes as one of the plural water rights regimes, remained uncontested. This colonial legacy remained equally hidden in the recent reforms strengthening permit system. Based on research on the new permit systems in a context of legal pluralism in Tanzania, Mexico, South Africa, Ghana, Mozambique and elsewhere, this paper addresses two dilemmas. The first is: how can the dispossession and discrimination be reverted by recognizing and even encouraging informal water self-supply since time immemorial to meet basic livelihood needs by millions of small-scale water users? The second dilemma, which prevails in Sub- Saharan Africa, but less in Latin America, is: can permit systems become effective regulatory tools to combat water over-use and pollution, collect revenue, and, where historical justice warrants, to re-allocate water from the haves to the have-nots, as South Africa’s water law aims? The paper provides evidence and best practices on, first, how the state can recognize legal pluralism and informal water rights regimes, and, second, how state regulation can only become effective through lean and targeted measures, so without nation-wide permits."
  • Conference Paper
    Building Sustainable Communities on a Foundation of Natural Resources: Examples from the Use and Management of Geothermal Hot Springs in Bessho Onsen Property Ward, Nagano, Japan
    (2011) Mitsumata, Gaku
    "In Japan, Geothermal hot spring as common-pool resources has long been used and managed cooperatively and can not only support their users in a traditional economy but can also contribute to sustainable livelihoods in the present. The purpose of this article is to clarify the mechanism of such the collective management system of geothermal hot spring resources through the examination of the case in Bessho Onsen Property Ward in Japan, Nagano, Japan. In the property ward whose system has roots in the traditional commons (Iriai) in Japan, efficient utilization and sustainable management of the hot springs has been realized under certain rules in spite of conflicting interests among the facilities, which mainly include communal baths, communal washing areas and inns. Local residents benefit from the communal baths on a daily basis, which are open to people in and outside of the area. The communal washing area is a neighborhood facility, which is open only to the members of the users’ association among the residents of the Bessho Onsen area. Hot spring baths inside the inns are used exclusively for business purposes such as for visiting tourists. Our research makes it clear that the hot spring sources, on which different users depend, are owned by the Property Ward, and their management and maintenance, as well as water distribution, are under the overall and comprehensive management of the Property Ward. The Property Ward has been paying careful attention to preventing water depletion at the hot spring sources through scientific evaluation by specialist as well as consistent daily maintenance by the Property Ward assembly members. Our research also finds that such a way of hot spring resource management has an institutional characteristics and devises arranged by property ward. In order to deal with serious conflicts of immediate interests among the users, the Property Ward prepared a decision-making mechanism which helps toward finding a resolution to suit all concerned parties. We found evidence of the mechanism in operation in (1) the method used for selecting assembly members, which has been carried out conventionally, and in fundamental important roles of the Administrative Research Council established within the Property Ward, and in (2) the multilayered collaboration (governance) of various organizations with the Property Ward placed as the core entity."
  • Conference Paper
    System Dynamics Modeling of Livelihoods and Forest Commons in Dryland Communities of Andhra Pradesh, India
    (2011) Chalise, Nishesh; Yadama, Gautam; Hovmand, Peter; Cell, Papagni; Pradesh, Andhra
    "The very poor, in drylands of India, survive because of vital ecosystem services from forest commons. Economic and environmental uncertainties, institutional variations governing ecosystems, and productivity of dryland cultivation intensify and complicate the linkages between household poverty and dryland forest commons. These economic ties to local ecosystems not only affect the biophysical properties of a forest commons but also how people organize their livelihoods at the household and community level that further influence local ecosystems. In this paper, we discuss system dynamics and it use and value in examining the interplay between forest ecosystems and livelihood strategies in a dryland village in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. We do systems dynamic modeling with key stakeholders – the villagers, using traditional participatory action research techniques combined with group model building. This approach – Community Driven System Dynamics -- to derive data from actors to understand the structure of social-ecological systems and the behaviors they generate over time is innovative and holds significant value for understanding human and natural systems interactions. We will present the results from a community based system dynamics modeling research from a village in close proximity to a dry deciduous forest. Results will include causal loop and stock flow models of feedback mechanisms between livelihoods, forests, and exogenous drivers mediating the social-ecological systems. Simultaneous examination of changes over time in both the biophysical aspects of forest commons and the diversified livelihoods of forest dependent rural poor in India will 1) lend sharper insight into the linkages between human and forest ecosystems, and 2) point to high leverage points of intervention in such coupled social-ecological systems."
  • Conference Paper
    Strategic Environmental Assessments: Framing the Complexity of the Environmental Commons for Multi-Institutional Stakeholders
    (2010) Matthews, Mary M.; Ennis, Glenroy
    "The process of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) involves drawing on a wide range of ecological and socio-political factors to influence the decision making process for policies, plans and programs. Unlike the environmental impact assessment, which deals with very tangible impacts and concrete actions, the SEA is broader and more encompassing, both institutionally and ecologically. As a result of this, the issue of environmental management spans a wide array of ecological issues and a broad range of impacted and effected institutional stakeholders at multiple levels. Within the process of the SEA, the involvement of stakeholders requires asking them for an investment of their time and energy to provide critical insights into the forthcoming policy, plan or program. This paper will address how the complexity of the environmental commons can be framed in a manner that provides incentives for stakeholder involvement in the SEA, while also improving outcomes to enhance complex multiple resource use strategies. This paper draws on applied experiences with SEA multiple developing countries for the US Government. World Bank, and European Union."
  • Conference Paper
    Fishermen, Landscapes and Resources on the New Jersey Coast: An Inquiry into the Meanings and Values of Common Property Resources and Landscapes
    (1990) Sinton, John; Tomkins, Silvan
    "This paper will present the preliminary findings of a research project on relationships between fishermen and their coastal landscapes and resources in southern New Jersey. The project's goal is to help set policies on sustainable fish and shellfish development, assuming different relationships to the resource among commercial fishermen, sports and clammers, fiven the hypothesis that affective/emotional relationships are vital to policy and decision making. If successful, the project would have cross-cultural implications."
  • Conference Paper
    Political Losers
    (2002) Shepsle, Kenneth A.
    "I hope to convey, especially to those who never knew him personally, some of Bill's attributes and qualities - especially his intellectual curiosity, vision, and honesty. Bill Riker was, at one and the same time, a scholar of impeccable classical training and traditional interests and the most modern of social scientists."
  • Conference Paper
    Decentralization in the Sahel: Regional Synthesis
    (1994) Thomson, James T.; Coulibaly, Cheibane
    "Decentralization is a topical issue in the nine CILSS countries of the West African Sahel and the Cape Verde Islands. These countries, with the partial exceptions of the Gambia and Senegal, have operated for most of the last century under centralized political systems. Over the past fifteen years, however, the centralized model in CILSS countries has come under increasing criticism. It has worsened rather than helped to solve such fundamental problems as sustainable governance and management of renewable natural resources (the basis of the region's economy), and provision of basic levels of public services. Centralized political systems have slowed national economies and impeded more effective governance. Political reforms have become an issue of urgency. But which reforms?"
  • Conference Paper
    On Maintenance in Irrigation Systems: A Preliminary Analysis
    (1987) Tang, Shui-Yan
    "In this paper, I report some preliminary analysis on 16 irrigation cases we have coded. Since only the location, resource, operational level, and subgroup forms have been entered in our database for all 16 cases, I concentrate the analysis on how the attributes of the resource and the community of appropriators affect maintenance of the irrigation systems. Operational and collective choice rules are discussed when they are closely related to this context. In our coding, we assign a confidence level ranging from '1' (very confident) to '5' (ambiguous information) to most of the answers. In view of the limited number of cases coded, I do not use these confidence levels to differentiate more reliable data from less reliable ones. These 16 cases may not be representative of all codable cases. They were chosen for the first round of coding because they are easily accessible and provide relatively detailed information needed for our coding. This paper merely illustrates what can be done with our data. An extended analysis will be undertaken when a wider sample of cases is codes."
  • Conference Paper
    Participatory Modelling: Companion Modelling in Puerto Princesa, Philippines
    (2008) Campo, Paulo
    "This paper describes the developments of an ongoing case study on the collaborative development of a Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) model for natural resource management (NRM) using the Companion Modelling (ComMod) approach involving three contiguous villages in Palawan, Philippines. In this study, the ComMod process was focused on the relationships between the institutions or rules for resource use and management, dynamics of resources in the uplands, lowlands and coastal areas and the livelihood activities of the community involving their shared natural resources. Through the modelling process, the stakeholders, which are composed of migrants and indigenous people, as well as government and nongovernment organizations, were immersed in collective learning activities and experiences leading to the development of role-playing games (RPGs) and computer simulation -- the articulations of a MAS model. These tools, the RPGs and simulation, were then used to initiate and facilitate discussion about natural resource management among the stakeholders. Moreover, the process revealed knowledge that was otherwise difficult to extract using traditional methods of data- gathering. With the knowledge and experiences the stakeholders have gained from the process and the tools that were used to facilitate the discussion, the stakeholders were able to lay-out initial plans for alternative livelihoods in the community together. With this said, ComMod has a high potential in facilitating multi-stakeholder processes towards attaining sustainable natural resource management."
  • Conference Paper
    Reinventing the Commons
    (1996) McKean, Margaret A.
    "It is a great honor to follow Douglass North in offering the closing remarks for this fifth meeting of the IASCP. We are indebted to institutional economic historians in general and Douglass North in particular for pointing out the impact of institutional structures on economic growth, and especially for making us appreciate the importance of clear specification of property rights in economic growth and in efficient use of resources. When this idea is combined with the crude (but apparently true) historical simplification that many societies used to have common property institutions and that individual private property has in many instances displaced common property, one might carelessly conclude that individual property is the more efficient form, requiring that we dismantle common property. This conclusion is, of course, at the heart of the campaign to privatize resource use around the world, and I believe that it represents a grotesque misunderstanding of North's insights."
  • Conference Paper
    Management Options for Optimizing the Potentials of Oguta Indoor Fish Hatchery and Abukwa Umuobom Fish Hatchery: Collaboration or Privatisation
    (2003) Igwe, H. O.; Orji, Raphael C. A.
    "The Oguta Indoor Fish Hatchery was established in 1974 by the fornier East Central State of Nigeria Government. The fish hatchery was established to produce fish fingerlings for sale to fish farmers and for stocking the Oguta Lake. Owing to financial constraints the hatchery could not take off till 1985, when the former Kainji Lake Research Institute now National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR) New Bussa, entered into a collaborative arrangement with the Imo State Government. The collaborative arrangement lasted for 9 years. During the period, fish fingerlings were produced and sold to fish farmers in Imo State and neighbouring States."
  • Conference Paper
    Community-Based Drug Abuse Control, Social Control, and the 'War on Drugs' in Northern Laos
    (2003) Cohen, Paul T.
    "In this paper I have argued that the benefits derived from the development of social capital comprise largely the common pool of resources provided by the aid agencies. These vital resources have become the focus of the politics of the commons that govern the strategic interaction between highland communities, on the one hand, and foreign agencies and local government officials, on the other. "The control of these resources by the agencies, given the contractual nature of alternative development, serves as a powerful force of compliance to the requirements of opium demand reduction. An additional, critical factor is the development of effective systems of community social control, which is closely connected to village headmen and model villages with low rates of relapse for detoxified addicts. The concern of village headmen with their reputation (or face), vis a vis fellow headmen and local agency and government officials, is enhanced by new forms of social capital derived from shared experience and networking. The rigorous system of social control that has emerged in Phase 2 villages in Long district also reflects a process whereby headmen have become crucial intermediaries and surrogates for the policing of communities; this has allowed both foreign agencies and local government to so far adopt relatively non-coercive, hands-off policies. However, this could soon change as the 2005 deadline draws nearer and pressures grow to meet opium supply and demand reduction targets. "I have emphasised the relationship between the development of social capital, effective community social sanctions against relapse and the economic benefits for rehabilitated addicts. I have also identified the attendant social costs in terms of the creation of an addict identity and increasing stigmatisation and marginalisation of relapsed addicts. This is inconsistent with the humane principles of community-based drug control and also with UNDCP programme pronouncements that addiction is a chronic relapsing order and that neither addiction nor relapse should be subject to punishment (UNDCP 2002:25,26). Furthermore, there is a realistic prospect that relapsed opium addicts will turn to the furtive use of more easily concealed and more harmful illicit drugs. Indeed there are already reports of the spread of methamphetamine (ya ba) use in the highland communities of both districts."
  • Conference Paper
    The role of Participatory Hydrological Monitoring in Groundwater Governance: Towards Evolving Informed Adaptative Mechanisms
    (2008) Ravindranath, R.; Sharma, Varun
    "Groundwater issues have become prominent since last three decades due to the erratic rainfall pattern, irregular supply of surface water flows and growing demand for agriculture, industries and for other domestic requirements. Alongside many basins are already closed or on the verge of closure. With increasing scarcity of water, Groundwater has become all the more important for the agriculture and for the livelihoods of the people. Consequently, the stress on groundwater has been increasing tremendously and it has been over exploited in the last couple of decades, which lead to the deterioration of the water table at an alarming rate and causing environmental hazards in some places. Semi arid regions are the worst affected due to the deepening of water levels in wells. "Many localized initiatives have been launched to address water scarcity; however, these developmental programmers are improving situation at local level without the perspective of basin flows at a larger level, thus leading to upstream and downstream conflicts sometime within a village or community due to the slag in supply and demand status of the resource. The problem of course, is that groundwater has been not treated as a common pool resource. This is compounded by the fact that there is also a lack of knowledge on base flows, which depend on the aquifer properties rather than on the administrative divisions, and some times the flows could be across villages, tehsils, districts and even countries like surface water. "In order to address these issues much technological advancement happened in the last two decades in understanding the hydrological aspects of the resources. However, it would have no value unless these innovations are practiced. Community could only adopt these technologies only if these are robust and user friendly. Government and non-government organizations have initiated a few attempts. At the outset, the participatory hydrological monitoring is a good solution to curb the groundwater depletion and managing the resources in a sustainable manner. "This paper talks about the management of groundwater resources by communities adopting various regulatory mechanisms and assessing the status of the resources with robust methods and utilizing the resources more sustainable across community."
  • Conference Paper
    The Resistant of Central Government towards Participatory Resources Management: Case of Irrigation and Forestry Resources in Decentralized Indonesia
    (2008) Yonariza
    "Where global trend on common resources management has been toward participatory resources approach through decentralization, i.e. stakeholders at local level play a more equal role in resources management; this concept found it's still hard to be implemented in Indonesia. Although the macro political condition has been conducive, i.e.; regime has already changed from authoritarian one to a more democratic one, administration has been changed from centralization into a democratic decentralization, civil society has been active in promoting participatory management, but the bureaucracy at central government hardly changes. Through a strategy of 'transfer and grab back', central bureaucracy manage to constantly play dominant role in common resources management. To revitalize its role, central government keeps modifying policies on these resources management. It consistently inserts phrases in natural resources law/regulation that allow it to penetrate into district level, it also uses moment of administrative split up of the province which put more resources categorized as national resources, accepting request from local government to upgrade district and provincial natural resource becoming national resources. These have bee facilitated by the fact that the country still depend on foreign aid for development program. This paper discusses how and why central government bureaucracy re-play dominant role in natural resources management amid the decentralization policy."
  • Conference Paper
    Common Property Institutions in the Alaskan Groundfish Fisheries
    (2000) Holland, Daniel; Ginter, Jay J. C.
    "This paper describes the process by which the groundfish resources off Alaska are being transformed from essentially open access to more manageable common property resources. Selected common property institutions that were created or developed in these fisheries are described in terms of the problems they were designed to solve, their success or lack of success in doing so, and the factors that influenced both emergence and success of these institutions. The institutions discussed include the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, the Community Development Quota system, the Pollock Conservation Cooperative, and the cooperative bycatch control system known as Sea State used by the factory trawler fleets. Conclusions applicable to other fisheries and other common property resources are then drawn from the analysis of these common property institutions in the Alaskan groundfish fisheries."
  • Conference Paper
    The Global Conservation Battleground: CITES, the IWC, the African Elephant and the Whale
    (2002) Couzens, Ed
    From Page 1: "Modern international environmental treaties are changing shape. Unlike older treaties, modern treaties regularly include provisions for aid to be provided to developing countries when they are asked to act in ways that benefit the developed world or other states, at cost to themselves. There is also a trend for modern treaties to include monitoring and reporting procedures, with support structures and institutional frameworks. "One of the issues this article considers is the way in which Japan and Norway appear to be attempting to use the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in order to circumvent the moratorium on whaling imposed by the International Whaling Commission. Allied to this is the potential for these countries to use the international trade in ivory as a symbol and precedent for efforts to resume whaling. "To be learned from this is that international environmental treaties may have shelf-lives. CITES and the Convention for the Regulation of Whaling may well be nearing the limits of their effectiveness. "This leads to a discussion of a related issue raised: that of differing perceptions of conservation, preservation and usage of natural resources held by different international actors. The principal countries involved in the issues discussed in this paper hold markedly different ideas about conservation, the utilisation of natural resources and indeed the very concept of sustainable development."
  • Conference Paper
    Common Pool Resources: The Search for Rationality through Values - Empirical Evidence for the Theory of Collective Action in Northern Italy
    (2008) Marelli, Beatrice
    "This paper examines the relationship between values and institutions for water management in small rural irrigation systems. This topic has been approached by investigating two farm communities in Northern Italy and comparing how values shape institutional performances in terms of accomplished resource sustainability. First, the paper gives an overview of the literature on the topic, and then introduces the bio-physical features that frame the institutional path of the communities. It analyzes the processes through which the internal attributes of trust, reputation and reciprocity act within shared values in the two groups, developing different institutional performances in terms of the rules in use applied in the irrigation process by each community. Data have been collected from in depth interviews and semantic differentials from relevant community members, including farmers and extended family members who might help with farm-work. The paper concludes that among individual attributes and values, trust is required for overcoming selfishness in appropriators groups to achieve long- term institutional construction. In addition, in order to accomplish satisfactory and sustainable water management, a common vision of the resource based on consciousness raising about common interventions for preserving irrigation capability, is highly desirable."
  • Conference Paper
    Norms Through Minds
    (2009) Andrighetto, Giulia; Giardini, Francesca; Conte, Rosaria
    "The aim of this work is to enlighten the role of cognitive influencing in norm emergence and compliance. The paper unfolds as follows: in the first part, norm immergence will be described as a necessary mechanism for norm emergence; in the second part, a cognitive analysis of punishment will be provided and the role of this enforcement mechanisms in norm compliance will be shown. Some remarks and ideas for future work will conclude the paper."
  • Conference Paper
    Utilization of Common Property Resources For Making a Village Self-Reliant: A Case Study
    (1995) Maheshwari, R. C.
    "The increased population pressure has resulted in an increasing need for timber/ fuel and fodder which has caused degradation of forest land by excessive tree lopping and overgrazing. An integrated approach has been made to develop a hillock wasteland falling under classes Hies and Vies of land capability classification in watershed management plan for achieving fuel and fodder security in an adopted village Islamnagar under Operational Research Project On Integrated Energy and Nutrient Supply System. An Energy Census and Resource Assessment Survey of this village showed that village was in deficit of fuelwood by 98.8 tonnes (20.8%} and cattlefeed by 812 tonnes (30%). The total area of the village is about 717.04 ha out of which 61.6 ha is forest land more than half of the forest land comprised hilly terrain and completely denuded of its trees, the rootstocks of which still existed. In order to meet fuelwood and fodder demand of the village, 38 ha appropriate land identified on the basis of land use planning, has been brought under silvipastural development with early growing tree species and high yielding varieties of the grasses. The soil and water conservation measures taken include contour survey, cut off trenches along the contour at 5-10 m vertical interval, vegetative waterways, drainage ditches, cattle protection trenches and kachha service road along the boundary of the area, temporary erosion control structures and micro-catchment water harvesting for insituting water conservation. In addition to meeting fuelwood and fodder demand and other intangible benefits, the silvipastural development of identified wasteland would generate 115421 man-days work during a life span of five years."
  • Conference Paper
    Informal Institutions and Access to Grazing Resources: Practices and Challenges among Pastoralists of Eastern Ethiopia
    (2006) Beyene, Fekadu
    "Rangeland resources in the pastoral and agropastoral system are facing new threats of numerous causes. The on-going scholarly and policy debate whether pastoralism, which entails communal use of grazing resources, has to be pursued as a livelihood or should somehow be altered needs to be supported with empirical evidence. Without taking either side of the debate, we rely on a case study conducted in three districts of Eastern Ethiopia to examine informal institutional practices that facilitate access to grazing resources and associated challenges. Understanding this provides a clue as to why such debate has emerged and how far existing pastoral traditions and norms enable them to successfully cope with newly emerging challenges. Data were collected from clan leaders and elders and individual households in 18 pastoral associations. Information on decision-making in grazing arrangement for internal management and reciprocity of access has been gathered. Logistic regression is used to complement descriptive information and to elicit the direction of influence of useful variables on access mechanisms. "The result shows that given the recurring drought causing massive devastation to the herd as exogenous factor, internal social relations and kinship structure still remain to be the most determining factors in influencing access to the commons. Within this, many forms of institutional arrangement providing different kinds of incentives exist. In places where there is ethnic difference, poor institutional arrangements prevail and the regional state lacks the capacity to enforce property rights. In such case, incursion through strengthening physical power has remained the most viable means of securing access. As a result, violent conflict is inevitable. This situation has undermined the possibility of trading rights to neighboring clans producing negative externality, livestock concentration in specific grazing area that damages the social and uneconomical way of raising assets for investment in conflict. In another instance where there is no ethnic heterogeneity, political change has affected clan relations. Despite these network density, age, internal social capital, and movement frequency are important variables influencing access to communal grazing falling under other clan's jurisdictions. "One pressing challenge having implications on the survival of communal grazing land is the development of incentives for establishing enclosure. The sources of such incentive are internal in relation to market development and external associated with expansion of farming from surrounding community. Although drought has severely damaged many pastoralists and agropastoralists, there has been a gradual increase in the area of land falling under private use on clan's communal grazing area indicating some signs of change in informal institutions to respond to changing situations despite the existence of various practices."
  • Conference Paper
    Sarvodaya Movement: Developing a Macro Perspective From Grassroots Collective Actions
    (2008) Prasad, Archana
    "The present study is intended to throw light on the various subtle aspects of the Sarvodaya programme for social transformation in rural India and assess the actual revolutionary potential of the movement. It aims at exploring the extent to which Sarvodaya movement has succeeded in fulfilling its objectives for establishing a new social order based on 'collective actions' and 'moral values' that tend to minimize inequities in the system. This requires a detailed study of the welfare activities done by the various gramsabhas for the benefit of commons, and the landless. This investigation also focusses on the processes which might lead to the emergence of a collective conscience among the rural peasantry. An inquiry into the functioning of various institutions and voluntary organizations striving to contribute to the collective welfare while highlighting the actual strength of their membership and the frequency of participation, enables us to measure the extent of 'social mobilization' and 'collective unity' in different villages. The rural communities, in the course of the implementation of Sarvodaya programme, might be characterized by a more effective polity based on political awakening of the electorate and 'secularization' of the attitude of traditional leaders. Therefore, a detailed investigation has been made into the changing pattern of leadership in the villages for assessing its capability to provide 'linkage' between various strata of the rural community. We have tried to trace shifting trends in the social position of traditionally dominant caste groups which might, under the influence of Sarvodaya, yield to relatively backward castes, thereby encouraging their free and effective participation in the decision making. Finally, as Sarvodaya programme of work is aimed at generating certain institutional in-built mechanisms for co-ordinating all the strata of the rural community in an effective network of functional interdependence, the study involves a careful analysis of those newly generated institutional frameworks and value-systems which might account for the manner in which conflict avoidance and tension management is ensured. This is particularly significant in view of Sarvodya's objective of avoiding recourse to police and courts for the solution of disputes. "Two arguments were put forward in support of the Association for Sarva Seva Farms (ASSEFA), a Sarvodaya organization of repute. First, the structure of ASSEFA was not fettered by various administrative and financial procedures, rules and regulations, etc, and, therefore, the programmes launched by them run in a flexiable manner. Second, it was more conversant with the prevailing conditions of the area and modes as well as attitudes of the people, therefore, it is easier to enlist the co-operation of the commons in the areas. The author, however, draws attention towards the role of ASSEFA engaged in a variety of social work in Khaira Block of Jamui District, Bihar (India) in support of these arguments. However, the author further observes that the two basic questions facing the ASSEFA these days are the social challenges it is confronted with, and its own stability and governance."
  • Conference Paper
    Decision-making Processes in the Management of Coastal Commons: Case Studies from the Caribbean
    (1995) Thebaud, Olivier; Renard, Yves
    "The paper focuses on Coastal Zone Management issues in the small Caribbean islands of Martinique and Saint-Lucia, and underlines the importance of understanding decision-making processes in the implementation of collective measures to regulate the access to and use of coastal resources. The two islands appear to face similar problems linked to the increase and diversification of the demand for these resources. Multiple activities, particularly tourism and leisure activities, have developed in recent years, both on land and at sea, together with growing urbanization and the concentration of communication infrastructures in the sea shore. Despite new and strengthened public regulations, there appears to be an increase in the number of conflictual situations, and a growing need for more efficient collective management of the coastal areas. "Reference is made to a study led in Martinique in 1993 under an IFREMER (Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer) research programme concerning coastal conflicts analysis, and to the work done by CANARI (Caribbean Natural Resources Institute) in both the analysis of conflicts and the provision of assistance in the definition of a regional management program for the district of Soufriere in Saint-Lucia. In the case of Martinique, the study showed that effective management of coastal areas as public property on the island did not result of integrated decision making, more or less efficiently implemented through a single decision-maker's actions, but rather of simultaneous interactions between different actors involved in coastal use. This has led to situations of free access and conflicts, which are managed through locally devised, collective regulation systems, following general public land management principles. The case of Soufriere, where a specific institutions integrating local activities into a collective regulation system was created, gives an illustration of the negotiation process and problems encountered in the tackling the establishment of practical rules of access to and use of coastal resources."
  • Conference Paper
    Reaching for New Perspectives on Co-Management: Exploring the Possibilities for Systemic Change and Indigenous Rights under the Interim Measures Agreement in Clayoquot Sound, BC
    (1998) Goetze, Tara
    "In recent years, cooperative management of resources has received increasing attention from academics, policy makers and resource users alike. Researchers from many disciplines have investigated 'co-management' from a variety of perspectives. As a result, a spectrum of the theoretical and practical implications of co-management regimes has emerged, though it is dominated by a particular scope of inquiry: co-management is seen primarily from a resource-centred perspective. This makes sense. The primary motivation for initiating co-management is typically to ameliorate the management of a resource in crisis, threatened by competing interests and/or knowledge systems. Certainly, ecological considerations are both useful and necessary. Yet the literature reveals a shared understanding that co-management is not only about improving the management of resources, but also about negotiating and redefining relationships between people with varying interests in, and varying degrees of authority over, the resource (Usher 1986, Pinkerton 1989, Finlayson 1994, Hoekema 1994). So, the social and political dimensions of co- management have been acknowledged, but to a limited degree. In considering the significance of co-management, what might be called 'analytical reach' could be augmented. Using the Interim Measures Agreement (IMA) between the government of BC and the Nuu-chah-nulth First Nations in Clayoquot Sound as an example, I suggest there is great value in reaching beyond the immediate resource-related issues to explore the broader significance and implications of co-management regimes as political, legal and social phenomena. This 'second level' of analysis provides important theoretical and practical insight into issues such as decentralized power-sharing and indigenous rights."
  • Conference Paper
    Pilot Schemes for Community-Level Forest Management in Lao PDR: A Case Study from Nam Ngum Watershed
    (1998) Phanvilay, Khamla
    "Community based management of common resources has increasingly been recognized by government agencies in the Lao PDR. Since the late 1980s, government policy on natural resources management has been re-examined as part of a complete and fundamental overhaul of the legislative framework to devolve natural resource management rights and responsibilities to local communities. The new resource management policy and resource tenure related legislation is embedded in broader development principles such as the public sector, improved living standard for the whole population and halting the degradation of natural resources. "This paper will highlight recent experiences with the implementation of the new national resource management and land use allocation policies, through case studies which reveal the implications for both local and national governments."
  • Conference Paper
    Building Upon Peoples' Ecological Knowledge: Framework for Studying Culturally Embedded CPR Institutions
    (1991) Gupta, Anil K.
    "Diversified uses of natural resources are an essential for household survival in high risk environments. We have earlier argued (Gupta 1990) that portfolio of activities which so evolves in an eco specific manner includes a combination of apparently rational and not so rational strategies of livelihood. Portfolio of activities is based on resources governed by different property right regimes on one hand and ethical and cultural norms on the other. In this paper I argue that institutions for natural resource management are a part of evolutionary cultural, religious and social experience of any community. While it is inevitable that conflicts in the access to resources or their utilization emerge from time to time. These conflicts need not erode completely the network of common property knowledge systems. The conflicts and convergence may simultaneously take place along different planes and levels of consciousness. One cannot analyze resource management institutions without understanding the conceptualization of nature and repertoire of responses that a community evolves to adjust with changes in the natural phenomena. "The incidence of drought in dry regions, hailstorm or landslides in hill areas, occurrence of plant, animal or human diseases particularly the ones which are contagious (and call for collective quarantine) and any other natural calamity creates stress on the social institutions. Folk literature including riddles, songs, proverbs, adages, stories, theater and jokes provide mechanisms for internalizing certain values which in their explicit form are either difficult to imbibe or to sustain. In our anxiety to look for rules and related order we may miss the creativity that underlies the experimental and innovative mind of peasants and pastoralists in these regions." "I present in part one a framework for looking at boundaries of beliefs, eco-sociological context and institutional images for natural resource management. In part two I present instances which illustrate the creative aspect of people's indigenous eco sociological knowledge systems (IEKS). In part three, I deal with the lessons for institution building requiring incorporation of indigenous knowledge as a building block of modern institutions. Finally issues for further research are identified."
  • Conference Paper
    Watershed Management, Self Help Groups, and Inter-Institutional Linkages
    (2000) Sharma, Kailash C.
    "Generally speaking, watershed management involves harnessing rainfall, improvement measures on barren hill slopes, privately owned lands, commonly owned lands and water recourses in rain fed areas with peoples participation. It begins with two most important resources i.e., water and land. Watershed Management has a strong technological component encompassing conservation of rain water as much as possible at the place where it falls and drainage of excess water safely to storage ponds; avoiding gully formation and putting checks at appropriate intervals to control soil erosion and to recharge ground water; and utilization of land according to its capability. "However, the medium of watershed management is people's participation. Without people's participation, the technological aspects have limited relevance. In the past, the technical details were emphasized and less attention was given to people's participation. "Collective management of resources is a prerequisite for successful watershed management and it requires strong village level institutions. In the absence of strong village level institutions, common resources are exploited. Therefore, institutions, be formal or informal in terms of organizational setup are needed for sustainable watershed management. "As the existing institutions are not performing as expected, the need for evolution of alternative institutions is strongly felt. The process of institution building is essential but is a time taking and difficult task. This is where the role of good non-government organisations (NGOs) becomes crucial for mobilising people for collective action. Initially, confidence and friendship are developed with the local people. Then, they are encouraged to participate in decision making regarding improvement in the watershed. Once a sort of trust is established a somewhat formal institution is built for collective action. "The Khulgad Micro Watershed case of Uttar Pradesh Hills presented in the paper shows that watershed management activities have made significant progress in reversing the land use trends in favour of agro forestry and social forestry in the study villages. It is optimistic to note that it is possible to reverse the land use dynamics in favour of environment if suitable interventions are implemented with peoples participation. An NGO of professionals, the Central Himalayan Environment Association (CHEA) played the role of organising people. The changes in land use have been possible with involvement of people's institutions at village level called Gram Sansdhan Prabandh Samitis (GSPSs) (Village Resource Management Committees) and Mahila Mangal Dals (MMDs) (Women Welfare Groups) in the villages. "The dependency syndrome in participatory mode of development is prevalent almost everywhere wherein people have become conditioned to expecting subsidised inputs from government sponsored programmes of watershed development or any other external agency. Therefore, watershed management activities are carried out as long as there is support from outside either directly or indirectly. Once support from outside is withdrawn, the watershed management activities also come to a halt. This is not sustainable watershed management. For watershed management to become sustainable, the people should own it and should be able to fund it on their own. This can be achieved through the institution of Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their linkage with formal financial institutions such as commercial banks, regional rural banks and cooperative banks. "Self Help Groups are informal groups that are formed around felt need and are used for collective action. In the context of making watershed management self-sustaining, these groups promote savings among members and use their pooled savings to meet their consumption, production and investment credit requirements. The group savings are supplemented by outside fund be in the form of bank loan or grant from NGOs who promote them. However, these groups continue on their own even after the withdrawal of the NGO, thus, providing sustainability to watershed management activities. The experiences of Mysore Rehabilitation and Development Agency (MYRADA) in Karnataka and Aga Khan Rural Support Programme, India (AKRSP (I) in Gujarat amply demonstrate the power of SHGs in this regard. "For watershed management activities to be carried out on a sustainable basis, it is important to consider the inter-institutional linkages amongst the institutions that need to interact frequently. Basically, two sets of institutions are involved internal and external. For the internal or village level institutions, it is important to form federations and have linkage with panchayats. For external institutions i.e., government departments, NGOs and donors, it is important to work together for synergy and to give top priority to capacity building and financial sustainability of village level institutions right from the beginning."
  • Conference Paper
    Civil Society and Forest Governance in Southeast Asia: Towards an Alternative Model in Addressing Transboundary Forest-Related Conflicts
    (2006) Contreras, Antonio P.
    "This paper inquires into, and offers models about, the potentials of civil-society based processes and structures in fostering regional and global cooperation, and in the promotion of human security and the prevention of conflict among states. The inquiry is located in the environmental domain, particularly in the security implications of the problem of transboundary illegal forest products trade in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. As an exploratory study, the paper looks into the historical antecedents as well as contemporary examples of civil society participation in conflict resolution. It also explores the role which civil society plays in the promotion of alternative concepts of security to serve as impetus for policy change not only within states, but also across and between states in the arena of diplomacy, and in the promotion of social welfare and development. The focus on forests in Southeast Asia is warranted by the growing importance of environmental concerns in security discussions, as well as the strategic importance of the region."
  • Conference Paper
    Privatize the Forest Encroachments as Small Private Forests/ Agroforests
    (2006) Mehta, Madhusudan B.
    "In the developing countries forests are mostly government owned or is a public property. The forests are facing a great challenge from the increase in cultivation by the local people who live in the forests. There is a sincere effort to analyze the whole issue. The analysis is based entirely on the personal experience gained over a period of over 32 years as a forester, in a developing country that has strong roots in democracy. Besides detailed analysis of the problem some solution is suggested to meet with the problem but it may not be the only solution. The analysis of the problem and some solutions suggested may also hold good for other developing democracies."