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  • Book Chapter
    (Editora da UNESC, 2023) Colombo, Gerusa; Silveira, Clóvis Eduardo Malinverni da; Ruschel, Caroline Vieira; Milioli, Geraldo
    Refletir e analisar o ambiente na perspectiva do Comum (como princípio político) e dos comuns (com práticas constituintes socioambientais) figura aqui como uma das poucas opções que se tem para trilhar o futuro e evitar uma catástrofe planetária. Ante a crise Estatal para a preservação ambiental e para a inércia da população que mergulhou em uma sociedade de consumo, pequenas atitudes políticas, teóricas e práticas em relação ao tema podem se tornar a via para o futuro da humanidade (MORIN, 2012). Nessa direção, sugere-se que a vida em pequenas comunidades seja referência fundamental para o resgate da ligação do homem com a natureza e a alternativa de sustentabilidade.
  • Book Chapter
    Commons, Anticommons, Semicommons
    (Edward Elgar, 2011) Fennell, Lee; Ayotte, Kenneth; Smith, Henry
    This handbook chapter offers a brief introduction to the commons, anticommons, and semicommons models and shows how the three fit together in a unified theoretical framework. I suggest that each of these templates is best understood as a lens for apprehending a single core, challenging fact about resource systems -- their need to accommodate multiple uses that are most efficiently pursued at different scales, whether simultaneously or over time.
  • Book Chapter
    Legumes for Efficient Utilization of Summer Fallow
    (Elsevier, 2022) Gunaratnam, Abhiram; Rasu, Eeswaran
    "The uncertainty of the favorable climate for continuous farming in many regions of the world limits food production for catering to the needs of the increasing population and changing food consumption patterns. Arid and semiarid regions of the world are considered dryland farming regions. The unreliable and highly variable rainfall pattern, drought, unproductive lands, high evapotranspiration (20–25% of the total water use) and salt deposition in the soil are the main challenges in these regions. They found different ways to sustain their production sustainably. Of these, fallow cropping is a primary one and has been employed successfully to alleviate the challenges caused by unfavorable climate for farming. The traditional fallow system (weed fallow or bare fallow) is the oldest technique wherein the land is left uncultivated for a certain period to restore the soil nutrient status and soil moisture. However, during this period land is unproductive thus not profitable for the farmers and it takes a longer time for the restoration. This practice was suitable for the earlier era where there was not much pressure on the agriculture sector for food production. Later this practice was replaced by an improved fallow system. In improved fallow, selected crops based on their beneficial characteristics were grown and managed during the fallow period. This approach not only provides additional income but also restore the land faster than the bare fallow. The crops species employed in the fallow system decides the degree of success and therefore, legume crops are highly favored for this purpose as they provide various benefits."
  • Book Chapter
    Chapter 4: Evolutionary Institutional Change and Performance in Polycentric Governance
    (Cambridge University Press, 2019) Thiel, Andreas; Pacheco-Vega, Raul; Baldwin, Elizabeth
    "Polycentric governance has emergent properties that we argue can be explained through an analysis of the dynamics of institutional change. In this chapter, we use institutional change theories and evolutionary and Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) thinking to trace mechanisms observed in the change and emergence of polycentric governance. We offer an explanatory model of how polycentric governance changes. Particularly, we consider institutional change of polycentric governance to be negotiated in interdependent (networks of) action situations. Change (or emergence) of governance is the result of endogenous changes (e.g. in power resources actors hold) and/ or of exogenous drivers such as technological change. Polycentric governance shares characteristics with Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) whose change is evolutionary. We highlight the particular difficulties this perspective entails for assessing institutional performance. We illustrate the evolution of polycentric governance arrangements through two vignettes summarizing case study material from Kenya and Mexico."
  • Book Chapter
    Chapter 3: Foundational Aspects of Polycentric Governance: Overarching Rules, Social-problem Characteristics and Hheterogeneity
    (Cambridge University Press, 2019) Thiel, Andreas; Moser, Christine
    "In this chapter, we address what we consider some foundational components shaping emergent polycentric governance that can help to explain the scalar organisation and diversity of governance arrangements we encounter as well as their performance. First, we argue that polycentric governance is founded on particular overarching rules, which enable self-organization by providers, producers, consumers and citizens involved in governance of collective goods. Second, polycentric governance draws together a diversity of ways to address the social problems, along with their characteristics and performance criteria, that involved actors bring into negotiations over governance. Variability in social problem characteristics consequently leads to variable governance structures and levels of performance. Third, heterogeneity of communities (e.g. in terms of income, education, values) engaged in polycentric governance can provide further insights regarding why people prioritize certain performative aspects of governance in relation to different criteria and, therefore, seek to realize their aims through a diversity of governance arrangements. This chapter elaborates on the foundational roles these variables play in shaping polycentric governance and highlights existing research gaps regarding key issues related to them."
  • Book Chapter
    Chapter 8: Assessing Performance in Polycentric Governance System Interactions
    (Cambridge University Press, 2019) Koontz, Tomas M.; Garrick, Dustin; Heikkila, Tanya; Villamayor-Tomas, Sergio; Thiel, Andreas; Blomquist, William A.; Garrick, Dustin E.
    "This chapter compares insights from our empirical cases of three kinds of interactions: cooperation, conflict and conflict resolution, and competition. The elements of authority, information, and resources affected incentives and interactions differently. Focusing on interactions as a unit of analysis points to a variety of performance criteria that may be appropriate. These criteria for assessing outcomes and processes cannot all be optimized at once, as trade-offs are evident, and different types of interaction are likely to entail different performance combinations. In our case studies, no performance criterion scored high across all cases, and no case performed well across all performance criteria."
  • Book Chapter
    Chapter 5: Cooperation in Polycentric Governance Systems
    (Cambridge University Press, 2019) Koontz, Tomas M.
    "Cooperation is an important way that decision centres interact in a polycentric governance system. Cooperation in governance has been studied by numerous scholars in the field of 'collaboration,' although such scholarship seldom explicitly sets it within the framework of polycentricity. Cooperation involves multiple decision centres working across boundaries to pursue shared goals, and it is especially prevalent for addressing complex socio-ecological systems. This chapter examines cooperation in the Puget Sound basin, USA, for ecosystem restoration. Against a backdrop of multiple federal, state, local, and tribal jurisdictions making decisions about various ecosystem components, the Washington State Legislature created the Puget Sound Partnership to foster cooperation for restoration efforts. Without comprehensive authority structures to direct restoration actions across system levels, the roles of information and resources are critical. This chapter describes how authority, information, and resources affected cooperation in formation of the Partnership and related Local Integrating Organizations, development of ecosystem recovery plans, and implementation of ecosystem recovery projects. It uses preliminary evidence to explore how we might assess polycentric governance performance in terms of outcomes and processes. Overall the Puget Sound ecosystem restoration efforts exhibit relatively high levels of coherence, representation, and adaptability; relatively low levels of efficiency and accountability; and mixed results on efficacy and network building."
  • Book Chapter
    Part II: Interactions and Performance in Polycentric Governance - Overview and Introduction
    (Cambridge University Press, 2019) Koontz, Tomas M.; Garrick, Dustin; Heikkila, Tanya; Villamayor-Tomas, Sergio; Thiel, Andreas; Blomquist, William A.; Garrick, Dustin E.
    "This Introduction to Section 2 describes three kinds of interactions in polycentric governance systems: cooperation, conflict and conflict resolution, and competition. It identifies three elements that shape how these interactions play out: authority, information, and resources. The Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework provides a consistent framework to organize inquiry in the chapters that follow."
  • Book Chapter
    An Introduction to Polycentricity and Governance
    (Cambridge University Press, 2019) Stephan, Mark; Marshall, Graham; McGinnis, Michael
    "Though our fundamental focus is on polycentric governance, in order to understand polycentric as an adjective that modifies the noun governance (defined below), we must start with the older term, polycentricity. According to Michael Polanyi, polycentricity had roots in the biological and chemical sciences and in the decentralized processes of decision- making within scientific communities. The term had been used to describe the types of plants in botanical studies in the context of whether they have multiple reproductive cells (polycentric) or only a single reproductive cell (monocentric). The terms polycentric and monocentric are still used in this way in botany, and in other areas of scholarship and policy analysis. For example, many urban planning scholars and geographers use the term polycentric to refer to metropolitan regions which encompass both significant suburban centres and one major urban centre, in contrast to a monocentric metropolitan order centred about a single city that has greatly expanded over time."
  • Book Chapter
    Transforming Climate Dilemmas from Tragedy to Cooperation
    (Cambridge University Press, 2021) Bruns, Bryan; Foster, Sheila; Swiney, Chrystie
    "Climate change has often been analyzed as a tragedy of the commons, a social dilemma where cooperation could make everyone better off but incentives induce individuals, businesses, and nations to keep on emitting greenhouse gasses. However, the simple game theory model of tragedy of the commons, Prisoner’s Dilemma, is just one of many possible models for climate conflict and cooperation. The topology of payoff swaps in 2x2 games shows relationships between games, including their potential transformations. Changes in the ranking of outcomes can transform Prisoner’s Dilemma into a Stag Hunt with the potential for win-win cooperation or Chicken with a shared fear of catastrophe, and then create convergent incentives that yield the best for both in Concord. Models of climate negotiations about whether to abate or pollute can be compactly displayed in a table based on how payoffs from symmetric games combine to form asymmetric games. Maps for transforming climate dilemmas reveal symmetric and asymmetric pathways to climate cooperation through fear of catastrophe, or assuring cooperation that is best for both, or adjusting incentives even if a polluter always want to avoid abating while the other pollutes. Maps for transforming climate games show the diversity of climate dilemmas and potential pathways to cooperation."
  • Book Chapter
    Practicing Polycentric Governance
    (Cambridge University Press, 2019) Bruns, Bryan; Thiel, Andreas; Blomquist, William A.; Garrick, Dustin E.
    "How can communities, associations, governments, and other organizations work better together? Principles for practicing polycentric governance include organizing at multiple scales, embracing self-governance, customizing solutions, and learning together. Communities working together to govern surface and groundwater commons in Rajasthan, India offer an example of challenges and opportunities for developing polycentric governance, as do various strategies to improve basin governance. Putting polycentric governance into practice can start with assessing how stakeholders are already interconnected and appreciative exploration of how they might improve their interactions. Institutional artisans can apply principles and mechanisms to craft overarching rules and other specific arrangements for polycentric governance. Polycentric governance can be facilitated by convening discussions among stakeholders, sharing knowledge, and empowering self-organized mutual adjustment."
  • Book Chapter
    Considerations on Governing Heritage as a Commons Resource
    (Springer, 2017) Gould, Peter G.
    "The 'commons' is gaining attention as a possible alternative model for managing tangible and intangible heritage in a manner that devolves authority and responsibility to local communities through mechanisms that are democratic and privilege local over national or global interests. This chapter reviews the literature on the commons within archaeology and heritage management, evaluates theorizing on the commons in the context of heritage, and explores, through literature review and case studies from Belize and Peru, the challenges and opportunities that arise should archaeologists and heritage managers seek to adopt the commons as a guiding principle for community projects. The chapter emphasizes that the problem of governance—the rules under which the competing interests of stakeholders in a venture manage their activities and resolve their differences—is an underappreciated but critical ingredient in the design of effective commons-like models for heritage management."
  • Book Chapter
    Polycentricity and Citizenship in Environmental Governance
    (Cambridge University Press, 2019) Marshall, Graham R.; Malik, Anas; Thiel, Andreas; Blomquist, William A.; Garrick, D.E.
    "This chapter is concerned with relationships between governance arrangements and environmental citizenship, and with the challenges of establishing and sustaining governance conducive to this citizenship. The significance of this concern is illustrated by Australian experiences with governance arrangements seeking to promote citizenship among rural landholders in natural resources conservation. In considering this concern we take our lead from a line of thinking about polycentric governance that was developed by Vincent Ostrom, who drew in turn from de Tocqueville’s early 19th century analysis of the American democratic ‘experiment’. Ostrom identified ‘the way people think and relate to one another’ (pertaining to the meta-constitutional level of analysis in the Institutional Analysis and Development framework) as fundamentally significant for meeting the challenges of achieving polycentric governance capable of promoting citizenship, and also the citizenship required to sustain polycentric governance. Key insights drawn by Ostrom regarding the meta-constitutional conditions required for forms of polycentric governance conducive to citizenship are reviewed in this chapter to suggest areas for continuing research into the viability of self-governing polycentric orders. Progress in empirical investigation of relationships between polycentric governance and environmental citizenship is reviewed. One relationship of this kind is illustrated with reference to attempts at policy reform towards environmental watering in Australia’s Murray-Darling Basin."
  • Book Chapter
    Love and Hate in University Technology Transfer Examining Faculty and Staff Conflicts and Ethical Issues
    (Emerald, 2016) Hamilton, Clovia; Schumann, David
    "This chapter examines the literature focused on the relationship between university research faculty and technology transfer office staff. We attempt to provide greater understanding of how research faculty’s personal values and research universities’ organization values may differ and why. Faculty researchers and tech transfer office (TTO) staff are perceived to be virtuous agents. When both are meeting each other’s needs, a “love” relationship exists. However, when these needs are not met, a “hate” relationship exists that is replete with doubt and uncertainty. This doubt and uncertainty creates tension and subsequent conflicts. There are many accounts where faculty researchers have not followed university policies and expectations, often violating policy and ethical standards. Likewise, faculty report numerous examples of how TTO staff members’ negligence in servicing their attempts to be good institutional citizens have failed them. This paper explores this love/hate relationship and reveals numerous conflicts that call into question ethical concerns. It also provides a set of recommendations for reducing and potentially alleviating these concerns. Results from a thorough review of the literature on the relationship between faculty and university TTOs reveals that perceived job insecurity is the primary reason that some research faculty members as well as some TTO staff, unethically violate their university policy to disclose invention disclosures and select to not provide full services, respectively. One way to alleviate the conflict between faculty’s personal values regarding their inventions and university’s organizational values is to enact measures that build trust and reduce insecurity among faculty members and TTO staff. In this paper, we not only examine this faculty/TTO staff ethical conflicts, but we offer a set of recommendations that we believe will reduce the likelihood of unethical behavior while encouraging greater institutional commitment and trust."
  • Book Chapter
    Mitologia Asteca
    (CLP, 2015) Goulart, Fábio Ortiz; Maio, José Endrew Vieira; Goulart, Fábio Ortiz; Maio, José Endrew Vieira
    "Este trabalho visa trazer informações referentes à mitologia asteca, principalmente no que concerna a visão de uma vida pós morte nesta mitologia."
  • Book Chapter
    Mitologia Celta
    (CLP, 2015) Goulart, Fábio Ortiz; Basso, Juliana; Goulart, Fábio Ortiz; Maio, José Endrew Vieira
    "Este trabalho visa trazer informações referentes à mitologia celta, principalmente no que concerna a visão de uma vida pós morte nesta mitologia."
  • Book Chapter
    Mitologia Escandinava
    (CLP, 2015) Goulart, Fábio Ortiz; Goulart, Fábio Ortiz; Maio, José Endrew Vieira
    "Este trabalho visa trazer informações relativas a mitologia escandinava, principalmente no que concerne a crença de uma vida pós morte nesta mitologia."
  • Book Chapter
    Rights, Pressures and Conservation in Forest Regions of Mexico
    (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016) Merino, Leticia; de Castro, Fabio; Hogenboom, Barbara; Baud, Michiel
    "The drivers of environmental degradation and the strategies to counter them are the subjects of heated debate. Several conceptual and policy approaches consider the key factors of this degradation to be the weakness and instability of property rights over natural resources. The commons perspective, on the other hand, emphasizes the viability and potential of the self-governance of shared resources such as forests. This perspective calls for a better understanding of the roles of local users and their institutions – understood as 'rules in use' – with regard to natural resources. In this literature, collective action is understood as cooperation and coordination to solve collective dilemmas related to the management of the commons. The influence of the commons perspective goes beyond academia, gaining recognition among some international funders, environmental agencies and practitioners. It follows the repeated failures of previous efforts of international aid to halt deforestation through the support of governmental agencies."
  • Book Chapter
    Translating Commons-Based Peer Production Values into Metrics: Toward Commons-Based Cryptocurrencies
    (Elsevier, 2015) De Filippi, Primavera
    "Commons-based peer-production (CBPP) constitutes today an important driver for innovation, social and cultural development, both online and offline, through the establishment of an alternative, commons-based ecosystem, relying on peer-production and collaboration amongst peers contributing towards a common good. Yet, to the extent that it operates outside of the market economy, the value of CBPP cannot be understood by relying exclusively on traditional market mechanisms (such as pricing). Based on empirical research on emerging value forms in the context of CBPP, we seek to achieve a better understanding of the value produced by CBPP communities, so as to come up with an alternative, universal, denominator of value that could act as an interface between the commons-based ecosystem and the market economy."
  • Book Chapter
    Understanding Indicators and Monitoring for Sustainability in the Context of Complex Social-Ecological Systems
    (De Gruyter, 2015) Haider, Jamila L.; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Gardner, Toby; Latawiec, Agniezka E.; Alves-Pinto, Helena; Strassburg, Bernardo
    "It is widely accepted that ecosystems across the world are increasingly affected by humans. Many earth system scientists contend that we have entered a new geological epoch, the Anthropocene, in which humans exert a dominating influence on many key earth system processes. Research on the characteristics of this new era emphasizes that a) the world is interconnected and thinking of a given study system as being made up of both social and ecological attributes that interact in complex and adaptive ways can help us make sense of these interactions; and b) the speed of environmental change introduces novel institutional challenges, such as the need to grapple with cross-scale interactions where the activities of one community or society can have far reaching effects on another, thousands of kilometers away.This perspective provides the starting point for why and how, in our view, sustainability indicators should be developed in a way that takes account of the complex and continuously changing nature of the systems they are trying to assess. This chapter begins with a general introduction to some of the key concepts that have emerged from thinking about complex adaptive systems. These concepts highlight some of the considerations that should underpin any attempt to monitor changes in a set of focal attributes that cannot be disentangled from the wider system within which they exist. We then provide a brief introduction to social- ecological systems thinking that explicitly recognizes the highly interdependent and cross-scale nature in which social and ecological attributes of a system are often connected. We posit that social-ecological systems thinking can provide invaluable guidance in designing monitoring and evaluation systems for assessing how different (interconnected) social and ecological attributes of a system are changing as we monitor progress towards, or away from, sustainability. In adopting such a systems approach we conclude with a discussion on the ways in which sustainability indicators themselves, as interdependent parts of the system they are designed to measure, can ultimately change perceptions of values and goals (for better or worse) regarding how that system should be managed."
  • Book Chapter
    Land Reform, Natural Resources Governance and Food Security: Message from and to Africa and Beyond
    (Nordic Africa Institute, 2015) Matondi, Prosper B.
    "I have been a student, mentee and colleague of Kjell Havnevik for some 17 years. In those close to two decades of professional relationship, we have shared many thoughts on land reform, natural resource governance and food security in Africa. He has been a top scholar and Africanist who believes that these subjects are of such importance they should be part of the world’s scholarship, policy and practical discourse. His contribution as a teacher for many generations has been outstanding, and I am both fortunate and privileged to have been one of his close students ‒ even now, mid-career, when I am trying to make a contribution and a difference. I work in the same area, not by coincidence, but because I believe there have to be some ideological shifts on these matters. For Kjell, the underlying questions and issues include what type(s) of governance institutions and mechanisms will lead to improved livelihood outcomes and environmental sustainability in rural Africa? It is this my chapter seeks to address. This is not an easy question to answer, yet it must be answered in several ways. First, by understanding the local knowledge and capital base, and opportunities or collective action/institutional development for strengthening the productive capacity of fractured households and communities. Second, by enhancing the adaptive capacity of communities to climate change and emerging market opportunities and risks (technical, technological, climatic and social aspects). Third, by examining the impact of land grabbing on livelihood strategies and rural dynamics (labour shortage for agriculture, impact on access to and use of natural resources, on gender, on property rights of affected segments and on family and social values and safety nets). Fourth, natural resource governance must achieve a balance between rural life improvement and environmental sustainability. Fifth, production and markets (formal and informal) must be governed to achieve rural improvement (labour productivity, technology, innovations, institutions, pro-poor market development). Sixth, governance mechanisms should be in place to promote African agency (promoting sound policies and institutions at all levels, countering ill-devised policies and mitigating the negative impacts of globalisation on rural livelihoods and on the management of natural resources)."
  • Book Chapter
    Overcoming the Samaritan's Dilemma in Development Aid
    (The World Bank, 2011) Ostrom, Elinor
    "We all have been in situations where we hear people criticizing aid to developing countries. Some people say, 'Don't do it anymore.' Others say, 'Do it better.' There is considerable doubt in the world that development aid is increasing economic growth, alleviating poverty, promoting social development, or fostering democratic regimes. We need to have a positive, sustainable impact, and that is not always happening. So it is important that we dig in and understand why some of our policies are not sustainable and why some people keep saying they need more money, while others say, 'Well, we just can't help from the outside. It's got to be from the inside.' Some focus on how long it takes to make a big impact, while others say the reason for diminished or unsuccessful outcomes is too many perverse incentives. This last reason is most important--many development aid incentives are perverse."
  • Book Chapter
    Multilevel Governance and Cross-Scale Coordination for Natural Resource Management: Lessons from Current Research
    (Levellers, 2012) Markelova, Helen; Mwangi, Esther
    "In this essay, we review current thinking on multilevel governance to explore why coordination across scales and levels is important. We also examine the main policy approaches that have been used to achieve cross-level and cross-scale coordination. Finally we consider some of the factors identified in the literature that contribute to successful cross-scale collaboration."
  • Book Chapter
    Open Access to Scholarly Knowledge: The New Commons
    (University of Regina, 2015) Morrison, Heather
    "This is a vision of a knowledge commons, a common pool of all of the knowledge of humankind from which all can draw freely and to which all qualified scholars are welcome to contribute. This chapter highlights some of the history, successes, issues, current status, and future priorities for achieving a sustainable, global, open access (oa) knowledge commons."
  • Book Chapter
    The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Research Communicators
    (Department of Library and Information Science, Jadavpur University, 2014) Das, Anup Kumar; Maity, Gautam
    "The emergence of Web 2.0 and simultaneously Library 2.0 platforms has helped the library and information professionals to outreach to new audiences beyond their physical boundaries. In a globalized society, information becomes very useful resource for socio-economic empowerment of marginalized communities, economic prosperity of common citizens, and knowledge enrichment of liberated minds. Scholarly information becomes both developmental and functional for researchers working towards advancement of knowledge. We must recognize a relay of information flow and information ecology while pursuing scholarly research. Published scholarly literatures we consult that help us in creation of new knowledge. Similarly, our published scholarly works should be outreached to future researchers for regeneration of next dimension of knowledge. Fortunately, present day research communicators have many freely available personalized digital tools to outreach to globalized research audiences having similar research interests. These tools and techniques, already adopted by many researchers in different subject areas across the world, should be enthusiastically utilized by LIS researchers in South Asia for global dissemination of their scholarly research works. This newly found enthusiasm will soon become integral part of the positive habits and cultural practices of research communicators in LIS domain."
  • Book Chapter
    The Challenges of Achieving Conservation and Development
    (Beloit College Press, 2012) Ostrom, Elinor
    "In this presentation, I will examine the challenges of achieving both development and conservation. In my research, one of the puzzles that I have been struggling with is how people and their ecologies can work together. Some scholars study only ecological systems, some scholars study only people. At the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis we try to study both. This approach is essential for understanding dynamic processes that lead to, mitigate, or avoid ecological and human disasters and move toward achieving sustainability of both ecological and social systems. This research requires that we break down the disciplinary walls that prevent such discussion from happening."
  • Book Chapter
    Different Farming Methods -- But no Solution to Improve Rural Sustainability and to Save Australia's Family Farm
    (InTech, 2013) Muenstermann, Ingrid
    "Australia's best known common property system, the Tilbuster Commons, failed after five years despite being economically and environmentally successful. Reasons for the failure could be related to interpersonal relationships. This chapter will look at Elinor Ostrom's philosophy of the commons and at lessons learned from the Tilbuster Commons. The purpose of the chapter is to establish the significance and usefulness or otherwise of different farming methods to create sustainable rural societies and economies."
  • Book Chapter
    Realizing the Right to Health of Undocumented Immigrants in Europe: Legal and Social Challenges
    (Monduzzi Editore, 2013) Terminski, Bogumil
    "The subject of the analysis presented in this article is the legal context and political debates regarding access of undocumented migrants to health care assistance and institutions of public health. Consequences of non-regulated legal status significantly impair or even deny illegal migrants the most basic access to medical care. The main condition of entitlement to specialized medical care is legal residence within a state in accordance with its legal provisions. Fearing a growth in illegal migration and increased expenditure, EU countries are not interested in extending social benefits to irregular migrants. Fearing deportation, dismissal from work and the enormous costs of private health care, they usually do not ask for professional medical assistance. By analyzing the most important health risks for migrants the author has also highlighted the current legal and political debates on this issue. Lawful residence based on migration status and rules which governing the welfare state must be coordinated with migrants' access to health care on the basis of universality and non-discrimination. In recent years we have seen a growing tendency in Europe to restrict access to health care for undocumented migrants and reinforce the relationship between access to health care institutions and immigration control policies. In many EU countries such as Sweden and Denmark, the right of undocumented migrants to free emergency care and more advanced health care is restricted and may be subject to payment. Examining international treaties and explanatory documents from the Council of Europe and the United Nations, I try to analyze relevant international laws affecting several groups of undocumented migrants concerning the right to health and access to health care institutions. This article also highlights activities undertaken in recent years by NGOs with the aim of establishing access to health for undocumented migrants in EU countries and placing this issue on the international agenda."
  • Book Chapter
    Technological Solutions for Climate Change Adaptation in the Peruvian Highlands
    (InTech, 2012) Raymondi, Ann Marie; Arias, Sabrina Delgado; Elder, Renée C.
    "Climate change is one of the most pressing and complex problems facing humanity. Climate change was first presented as a biophysical phenomenon, one that would manifest itself through sea level rise, melting polar ice caps, and warming temperatures. It has since become an issue of international significance and the subject of ongoing dialogue in both political and academic settings. As the risks of climate change deepen, so too does the contention and confusion surrounding how best to proceed. How we address climate change is continuously redefined and expanded in academia and policy. As the focus has gradually shifted from mitigation to adaptation, the dialogue has shifted to include the social dimensions of climate change, resulting in a sharp rise in research on the human dimensions of climate change. No longer just a biophysical phenomena, climate change has become a lens through which we analyze poverty, inequality, vulnerability, and development. It has created intense debate about who is responsible, who is most susceptible, and how best to prepare for the consequences of a changing climate. To address these questions, climate change scholarship has developed the concepts of vulnerability and adaptation."
  • Book Chapter
    Low Power FM in New Zealand: A Survey of an Open Spectrum Commons
    (Cambridge Scholars, 2012) Simpson, Brent; Mollgaard, Matt
    "Low Power FM is one of the most under-researched forms of media in New Zealand. In late 2010 I sent out a self-selecting survey via two online groups, the LPFM User group on Yahoo Groups and the Radio Heritage Foundation email newsletter. This chapter provides a historical overview of Low Power FM in New Zealand and uses the results of the survey and my own experience in LPFM in New Zealand to help sketch a broad picture of the stations and services operating in this space. Minimal regulation of LPFM spectrum in New Zealand has created a form of open spectrum commons. While commons approaches can be innovative and experimental spaces, they are also subject to the tragedy of the commons. The benefits and limitations of open spectrum commons are explored, as are possible future developments of LPFM, community broadcasting, and spectrum management."
  • Book Chapter
    The Future of International Environmental Law: A Law of the Ecological Commons?
    (West Group, 2012) Bollier, David
    "The first section of the chapter looks at the conceptual and historical background of the commons, as seen through readings by Garret Hardin and commons scholars such as Elinor Ostrom and Lewis Hyde. The next section introduces new notions of stewardship over the long term, often in contrast to regimes of private property rights and exclusive individual ownership for market gain. This accounts for the many deep tensions between private property law and the commons. A third section surveys a number of contemporary ecological commons and proposals for new commons such as acequias (community-operated waterways) that enable Native Americans to steward scarce water supplies in New Mexico; the Potato Park in Peru that empowers indigenous people to assert stewardship rights over a genetically valuable potatoes; community fishing regimes for endangered fisheries; and 'stakeholder trusts' and 'social charters' as a new paradigms of governance of ecological resources. The point is that we need new sorts of institutional innovation to manage the atmosphere, oceans and fresh water more responsibly. Finally, a fourth section considers the future of the commons and ecological governance that nation-states should strive to support."
  • Book Chapter
    Institutional Adminstrative, and Management Aspects of Land Tenure in Zambia
    (UNU Press, 1986) Banda, C.T.A.
    "It is patently obvious that the system of tenure in the State land areas has overwhelming advantages in that it provides an indefeasible title, a negotiable title, and a title that can be pledged to raise capital as well as provides for the succession of title. Certain restrictions on tenure are imposed by laws enacted by the Government. Such restrictions are in the national interest rather than in any local interest, and they may always be readily ascertained. It is desirable, in the interest of both the individual and the country, that these advantages be extended to the tenure of reserve lands and trust lands. At the same time, it must be recognized that rural people are generally conservative in thought and changes might, therefore, have to be gradual so that confidence is not undermined."
  • Book Chapter
    Impacts of AKST on Development and Sustainability Goals
    (International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development, 2009) Leakey, Roger; Kranjac-Berisavljevic, Gordana
    "The International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science, and Technology for Development (IAASTD) looks realistically at how we could effectively use agriculture/AKST to help us meet development and sustainability goals. An unprecedented three-year collaborative effort, the IAASTD involved more than 400 authors in 110 countries and cost more than $11 million. It reports on the advances and setbacks of the past fifty years and offers options for the next fifty years. The results of the project are contained in seven reports: a Global Report, five regional Sub-Global Assessments, and a Synthesis Report. The Global Report gives the key findings of the Assessment, and the five Sub-Global Assessments address regional challenges. The volumes present options for action. All of the reports have been extensively peer-reviewed by governments and experts and all have been approved by a panel of participating governments. The Sub-Global Assessments all utilize a similar and consistent framework: examining and reporting on the impacts of AKST on hunger, poverty, nutrition, human health, and environmental/social sustainability. The IAASTD was initiated by the World Bank and the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization, with support from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and other sponsors. Its goal is to analyze the potential of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology (AKST) for reducing hunger and poverty, improving rural livelihoods, and working toward environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable development."
  • Book Chapter
    Prologue and Preface
    (Lambert Academic, 2010) Kirsh, Marvin
    "This manuscript has ensued from my past studies in biochemistry (PhD, CUNY 1986) and my current endeavors in graduate study in philosophy and anthropology. The current research project began during my period as a graduate student in biochemistry with a professor of classical genetics comment that DNA was unique in the physical world. The paradox presented to relate this notion to existing natural law lead me to evolve and communicate a view that the world itself is a special case of a general case that has no relevant physical existence. I also hope to have presented a description of a situation that connects history, human behavior, the process and symbolisms of science, cause and effect to a holism of form, philosophy, mathematics, shape, and motion."
  • Book Chapter
    Tropical Land Clearing for Sustainable Agriculture: The SMN Concept
    (IBSRAM, 1987) Latham, Marc
    "The goal was to establish a Soil Management Network on Tropical Land Clearing for Sustainable Agriculture. During this workshop three aspects were considered: 1. Definition of the problem and its limits. Choice of land to be cleared, clearing methodology, post-clearing management, and rehabilitation of degraded lands were the major points discussed. A multidisciplinary approach was used, with representatives from soil science, agronomy, civil engineering, sacioeconomics, and other areas. A realistic research agenda considered both experimental and time imperatives. 2. Form of the network. I t was decided that the networKs struc- ture and organization must be sufjíciently coherent to retain the advantages of a network and suficiently flexible to take into account local priorities."
  • Book Chapter
    Impact of Soil Fauna on the Properties of Soils in the Humid Tropics
    (Soil Science Society of America, 1992) Lavelle, P.; Blanchart, E.; Martin, A.; Spain, A.V.; Martin, S.
    "The sustainability of soil fertility in agricultural systems of the humid tropics has recently become a major issue as a consequence of continued land degradation and the critical need to provide more food. For socioeconomic, pedological, and ecological reasons, the development of sustainable high-input agriculture has proven to be slow and difficult and much effort needs to be directed towards the improvement of productivity in low-input agriculture."
  • Book Chapter
    Gender Relations, Rural Transformation and Technological Change
    (ORSTOM, 1985) Evans, Alison
    "This paper takes as its starting point evidence of the negative and contradictory effects of technological packages on women's autonomy and status. Just how serious these negative effects are, in quantitative terms, and why women and men should accept this bleak situation, is not completely clear in the existing literature. This paper argues for an extended research approach looking at technological change as a product of social and political relations. Technology is a central component of current food self-sufficiency strategies, and women are primary contributors to food production points to the policy relevance of this type of research."
  • Book Chapter
    Aka-Farmer Relations in the Northwest Congo Basin
    (Cambridge University, 1982) Bahuchet, Serge; Guillaume, Henri; Lee, Richard; Leacock, Eleanor
    "For a variety of reasons, research carried out in central and southern Africa has long ignored the problem of contacts between the Later Stone Age populations of hunter-gatherers and the Iron Age peoples who brought techniques of food production, pottery-making and metallurgy. Recent archaeological research in Zambia, Malawi and Zimbabwe and more sophisticated methods of dating have begun to provide us with evidence on the antiquity of these contacts, dating in some cases to at least the beginning of the Christian era. The Co-existence of these two modes of existence has consisted not merely in a juxtaposition, but also has involved long-term exchange relations without technological assimilation. The antiquity and persistence of these relations compel us to perceive these foraging societies in a new light. Long assumed to have been on the fringe of history, these societies now appear to have been in contact, yet have nevertheless remained distinct. If some of them enable us to observe ancient forms of social and economic organization, they are by no means fossils of a prehistoric state, magically preserved. It is highly likely that centuries of proximity and contacts have had profound influences on both sides. From this viewpoint, it is clear that we must rely heavily on the findings of archdeology, linguistics and human biology for further insight. The case of the Aka Pygmies illustrates the extent of these contacts. It appears that the western equatorial forest fringe, where the Aka live, was penetrated by Savannah people as early as 2400-500 B.C. This colonization, which took the form of local and progressive migrations rather than a single massive move, was carried out by people, perhaps already Bantu, who made stone tools and pottery, and probably had techniques of food production."
  • Book Chapter
    Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Agriculture and Forestry
    (Oxford University, 1987) Dreyfus, Bernard; Diem, Hoang Gia; Freire, J.; Keya, S. O.; Dommergues, Yvon
    "Nitrogen compounds comprise from 40 to 50 percent of the dry matter of protoplasm, the living substance of plant cells. For this reason, nitrogen is required in large quantities by growing plants and is indeed the key to soil fertility. Non-nitrogen-fixing plants, for example cereals, obtain all the nitrogen they need from the soil. In Senegalese conditions this uptake was estimated to be as follows: 79-132 kg N ha/crop for pearl millet; 74-84 kg N ha/crop for rice; 134 kg N hdcrop for sorghum; and 121-139 kg N ha/crop for maize. Nitrogen-fixing plants, essentially legumes, take a part of the nitrogen they require from the atmosphere, the other part being provided by the soil."
  • Book
    Rural Women, Their Conditions of Work and Struggle to Organise
    (ORSTOM, 1987) Ahmad, Zubieda
    "In her paper, Zubeida Ahmad has attempted to establish a link between women's predominant role in food and agricultural production, the tasks women are generally called upon to perform, the constraints under which they operate and their need to form solidarity groups for family survival and generating income-earning activities. In this struggle for family/local food self-sufficiency, women's rights in land (or lack of them), which in turn provides an access to credit, improved inputs, technical knowledge, is considered of basic importance."
  • Book Chapter
    Relative Significance of the Physical Environment and the 1978 Land Use Decree on Agriculture in Nigeria: The Small Holders' Plight
    (ORSTOM, 1979) Ojo, O.
    "The promulgation of the Land Use Decree in 1978 is probably the most important step ever taken in transforming Nigeria's agriculture. Its aim is to revolutionise the customary land system considered as a threat to agricultural development. We examine in turn : the main concepts which, in the various régions of Nigeria and other tropical African countries alike, govern traditional land tenure; the problems set by the old system; the relations between land system and environment; the conséquences of the 1978 Decree for small holders."
  • Book Chapter
    Agronomie, Agriculture, Forêts
    (Publisud, 2008) Richard-Mollard, Daniel; Gillard, Jacques; Le Tacon, Francois; Perfect, Trevor John
    "Six experts ont participéà l'Évaluation des sciences agricoles, dans des sous domaines divers. Unrapporteur général a étéchargé derecouper les observations, et desituer/'importance du domaine pourleMaroc (ci après). Nous donnons aussi des extraits derapports spécifiques, concernant l'agronomie et les forêts. Les rapports surles Sols et surl'Eau figurentà la suite."
  • Book Chapter
    Population et Environnement
    (CEPED, 2000) Gubry, Patrick
    "Les populations humaines vivent dans divers milieux écologiques, imposés par la nature, dont les différents paramètres forment leur environnement. Le fonctionnement de la population et de son environnement constituent un écosystème. Les relations entre la population et l'environnement sont réciproques. La population modifie son environnement pour le rendre plus favorable à la vie humaine, voire même pour rendre la vie possible et assurer la survie d'une population en augmentation. Cependant, au fur et à mesure que l'environnement devient artificiel, des inconvénients croissants apparaissent pour les conditions de vie du moment, mais surtout des interrogations se font jour quant aux possibilités de maintenir les nouveaux rapports entre l'homme et son environnement sur une longue période, c'est-à-dire d'assurer un (( développement durable D. Dans ce contexte, il faut examiner aussi bien l'influence de l'environnement (naturel) ou (< transformé D) sur l'homme que l'influence de l'homme sur l'environnement. Dans un espace aussi t< humanisé )) que l'est le Viêt&m, l'environnement a déjà été très largement transformé par les activités humaines, surtout dans les zones de fortes densités bien sûr, mais pas uniquement, loin s'en faut. Ce n'est cependant que toùt récemment que les chercheurs en sciences sociales ont posé explicitement la question population-environnement de manière globale."
  • Book Chapter
    Dynamics of the Coastal Zone in the High Islands of Oceania: Management Implications and Options
    (Institute of Pacific Studies, 1993) David, Gilbert; Waddel, E.; Nunn, P.D.
    "This article focuses on the relationships between the human and the physical parameters of the coastal zone. The first part is concerned with defining the boundaries, terrestrial and maritime, of the coastal zone. The second part deals with its dynamics. It first discusses the overall dynamics of the relationships between the foreshore and both the land and marine environments adjacent to it. It then proceeds to explain the internal dynamics of the coastal environment itself, distinguishing between the land component, the marine component, and the interface between the two. The third and final part concerns the preservation of the coastal zone and its place in the sustainable development of high islands. Following a brief overview of the dangers that threaten this fragile environment, it stresses its economic and human potential, and discusses problems raised by the pricing of the coastal zone."
  • Book Chapter
    Tragedy of the Commons
    (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008) Ostrom, Elinor
    "The 'tragedy of the commons' arises when it is difficult and costly to exclude potential users from common-pool resources that yield finite flows of benefits, as a result of which those resources will be exhausted by rational, utility-maximizing individuals rather than conserved for the benefit of all. Pessimism about the possibility of users voluntarily cooperating to prevent overuse has led to widespread central control of common-pool resources. But such control has itself frequently resulted in resource overuse. In practice, especially where they can communicate, users often develop rules that limit resource use and conserve resources."
  • Book Chapter
    International Networks of a Trading Diaspora: The Mourides of Senegal Abroad
    (ORSTOM, 1995) Ebin, Victoria
    "This paper explores questions of identity among Senegalese immigrants who belong to the Islamic brotherhood known as the Mourides. Within the past two decades, these Sufis have abandoned an agricultural way of life in the rural regions of Senegal to enter the world of international trade. Throughout the brotherhood's expansion from the countryside to urban employment and now to international migration, the Mourides have maintained a strong identity and highly centralized organization which has extended to new communities outside Senegal and continues to attract converts, both Senegalese and non-Senegalese. This paper examines how throughout major relocations in place and in occupational focus, the Mourides have retained their specific identity and world view and strong sense of community."
  • Book Chapter
    (Overseas Development Institute, 1998) Glaesener, Vincent; Schreckenberg, K.; Shepherd, Gill; Brown, D.; Richards, Michael; Schreckenberg, K.
    "While many countries are reducing their aid budgets, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has made considerable efforts in the ®eld of development co-operation and, in terms of its GNP, is on the way to becoming one of the prime donors in the world. With an aim of devoting 0.7% of GNP to development aid by the year 2000, Luxembourg will, in 15 years, have moved from being a country with a minor aid programme to being proportionately one of the world's major donors."
  • Book Chapter
    (Overseas Development Institute, 1998) Navone, Paolo; Shepherd, Gill; Shepherd, Gill; Brown, D.; Richards, Michael; Schreckenberg, K.
    "Italy has the biggest range of types of forest of any country in Europe, from the Alpine forests of the north through the mainly deciduous forested hills and plains of Central Italy to the sub-tropical Mediterranean conditions of the south. One fifth of the country is mountainous, 60% hilly and only 20% consists of lowland plains."
  • Book Chapter
    UK [United Kingdom]
    (Overseas Development Institute, 1998) Hussey, Susie; Gordon, James; Shepherd, Gill; Shepherd, Gill; Brown, David; Richards, Michael; Schreckenberg, K.
    "The future of UK forestry development assistance appears to be fairly secure. The position within the natural resources sector is a convenient one for collaboration with other sectors, particularly agriculture, and does not affect the level of funding available to forestry. This depends on priorities set within Country Strategy Papers, where forestry is well represented. Although public concern for tropical rainforests may no longer appear as great as it was, 80% of all letters received by the Department are still from schoolchildren asking questions about this issue."
  • Book Chapter
    Europe: An Overview
    (Overseas Development Institute, 1998) Shepherd, Gill; Brown, D.; Richards, Michael; Schreckenberg, K.
    "This book provides an overview of the ways in which Europe offers support to tropical forests through aid and research. Each of the Member States' current programmes is examined, along with those of the various Directorates-General (DGs) in the European Commission which support tropical forestry. It is called a Sourcebook because it will probably be used more as a work of reference than as a book to read from start to finish. Its intended audience is threefold. Above all, its authors hope that it will be of value to the developing countries with which the European Union (EU) works. The book should make it simpler to understand the way in which aid to forestry is organised from country to country and within the Commission; it will indicate each donor's target countries for the funding of tropical forestry, and will suggest the particular interests of each."
  • Book Chapter
    (Overseas Development Institute, 1998) Kerkhof, Paul; Shepherd, Gill; Brown, D.; Richards, Michael; Schreckenberg, K.
    "Denmark was covered by forests and the human population density was low until early medieval times. From the tenth century onwards the population grew and an increasing proportion of the land was cleared of forest, a process temporarily interrupted during the Black Death. The population density of 20 people per square kilometre in the thirteenth century had doubled by the middle of the nineteenth. Norway and Southern Sweden were part of Denmark for much of this time, and although population densities there were much lower, the trends were similar."
  • Book Chapter
    (Overseas Development Institute, 1998) Veron, Philippe; Federspiel, Michèle; Shepherd, Gill; Brown, D.; Richards, Michael; Schreckenberg, K.
    "Two thousand years ago, most of Belgium was covered by natural forest. The main formations were the oak and birch woods which covered la Campine, the Atlantic oak forests of Central Belgium, and the hornbeam, oak and beech forests of Upper Belgium. First the Gauls cleared patches of forest to practise cultivation and animal husbandry, then the Romans built roads through the forests and made it more accessible."
  • Book Chapter
    Financial Transfers to Sustain Cooperative International Optimality in Stock Pollutant Abatement
    (Edward Elgar, 1998) Germain, Marc; Toint, Philippe; Tulkens, Henry; Faucheux, S.; Gowdy, J.; Nicolai, I.
    "It is well known that the transnational character of many environmental problems (for example, greenhouse gas emissions, acid rain, pollution of international waters) requires cooperation among the countries involved if a social optimum is to be achieved. The issues raised thereby have often been addressed, in the economic literature, using concepts borrowed from cooperative game theory."
  • Book Chapter
    Kinsfolk and Workers: Social Aspects of Labor Relations Among Ga-Dagme Coastal Fisherfolk
    (ORSTROM, 2010) Bortei-Doku Aryeetey, Ellen
    "The paper discusses social aspects of labour arrangements in canoe fisheries among the Ga-Dangmes, with particular reference to the place of kinship in labour contracts. Important social features of labour relation in these fishing communities include: the dependence on the family as a labour pool; family-based informal training and financing arrangements; pressure on 'owners of capital assets' (canoe owners, fish smokers/traders) to admit family members into their enterprises, resulting in overcrowding; a local avelfare/social security network that encourages an extensive redistribution of wealth fronl 'owners of capital assets to their 'worker' relatives; the incorporation of authority structures in fishing into local community political power structures. The implications of this overlap between social interests and business interests for the future of the Ga-Dangrne artisanal fisheries industry are addressed. In conclusion it is noted that kinship ties promote effective labour management. On the other hand they frustrate the bargaining position of both canoe owners and their crew, and may thwart innovation in labour transactions."
  • Book Chapter
    Strategies for Stabilization Constant Catch or Constant Fishing Effort?
    (University of Alaska, 1992) Hannesson, Rögnvaldur; Kruse, G.
    "Most fisheries are subject to substantial fluctuations in catches and fishing activity. There are obvious arguments for stabilization. Typically catches and fishing activity cannot be stabilized simultaneously. This paper considers the economic desirability of stabilizing catches versus fishing effort. The case when fishing mortality is proportional to effort is analyzed in some detail and it is shown that a stable effort is more profitable than stable catches, unless the price of fish depends on the catch volume. This is illustrated by quasi-empirical examples taken from two stocks of Atlantic cod."
  • Book Chapter
    Common-Pool Resources and Institutions: Toward a Revised Theory (Draft)
    (Workshop Working Paper Series no. W97-18, 1997) Ostrom, Elinor
    "Common-pool resources are systems that generate finite quantities of resource units so that one person's use subtracts from the quantity of resource units available to others. Irrigation systems are among the most important type of common-pool resource. Most common-pool resources are sufficiently large that multiple actors can simultaneously use the resource system and efforts to exclude potential beneficiaries are costly. When the resource units (e.g., water) are highly valued and many actors benefit from appropriating(harvesting) them for consumption, exchange, or as a factor in a production process, the appropriations made by one individual are likely to create negative externalities for others."
  • Book Chapter
    Institutional Analysis
    (International Development Research Centre, 1998) Pomeroy, Robert S.
    "Institutional analysis is the identification of various resource users, stakeholders and organizations involved in community-based coastal resource management (CBCRM). It also involves an examination of the institutional arrangements, the set of rights and rules for CBCRM in a community. An institutional analysis is usually conducted early in the CBCRM process during the planning phase. The level of detail can range from a simple description of the existing coastal resource management system to a very detailed analysis of the management system in terms of equity, efficiency and sustainability."
  • Book Chapter
    Common-Pool Resource Theory
    (MIT Press (Manuscript Draft), 2004) Schlager, Edella; Durant, R. F.; Fiorino, D. J.; O'Leary, R.
    From p. 146: "The Australian fishers are not like Hardin's herders. They have avoided a tragedy of the commons. Why have Australian, but not New England, fishers figured a way out of their tragedy? Hardin's model cannot account for such success; it predicts failure. Until recently, if one turned to the very best scholarly work, one would find only explanations and predictions of failure. This chapter argues, however, that this attitude is beginning to change. Over the past fifteen years, scholars and practitioners have concluded that the tragedy of the commons is no longer the only model available to account for human use of common-pool resources."
  • Book Chapter
    Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Conservation Status and Management Issues
    (Springer-Verlag, 1995) Doumenge, Charles; Gilmour, Don; Pérez, Manuel Ruiz; Blockhus, Jill; Hamilton, L. S.; Juvik, J. O.; Scatena, F. N.
    "In this paper, we will refer to tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) in a topographic sense, as cloud forests lying on wetter mountainsides, ridges and saddles, whether in montane or submontane floristic zones. They can be defined as tropical montane or submontane forests characterized by persistent clouds or fogs, sometimes with small trees, often with abundant mosses, ferns, lichens, or flowering plants in trees and on soil surface."
  • Book Chapter
    From Natural History to History of Nature: Redefining the Environmental History of India
    (Editions de I'Orstom, 1996) Sangwan, S.; Roland, Waast; Yvon, C.; Bonneuil, C.
    "The two observations, one from a metropolitan savant and the other from a colonial 'devotee' of nature confirm that ecological discourse at the centre and colonial periphery descended at a particular historical juncture. They also reiterates that the discourse had its roots in the broad domain of natural history. History of ecology (ecological ideas), as it stands now, is burdened with metropolitan bias with practically no discussion on its agenda in the colonial peripheries. One most concrete example being the (de)construction of natural history tradition on the Indian periphery. While a few consider it as simply a favourite 'mind-relaxing' exercise for men cut-off from home surroundings,o thers read as plain statistical surveys ('stampcollecting') without any reference even to the pressing demands of colonial state. A major shift came with professional historians joining the debate. Making 'colonialism' as the ultimate boundary of a scientific discourse on the periphery, the 'second wave' of scholarship links the data gathering exercise with the 'changing ideologies' of imperialism."