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Relationship Between Lineaments and Groundwater Potential: A Case Study of Kunya Sheet 58SW, Northwestern Nigeria

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Type: Journal Article
Author: Dandago, Kamal Abba
Journal: Hydrochemistry of Jakara Reservoir and Environs
Page(s): 36 - 38
Date: 2020
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10535/10813
Sector: Water Resource & Irrigation
Region: Africa
Subject(s): geology
Abstract: "Water pollution is a major challenge amongst all other types of pollution. A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water happens to stay or move and interact are responsible for this. The research was undertaken in the basement complex area of Kano State to determine the hydrochemistry of Jakara reservoir and the groundwater of surrounding areas. Geological and hydrogeological mappings were carried out on scale of 1:50,000. Measurements of the depth to groundwater table in hand dug wells were carried out during hydrogeological mapping using calibrated tape and the data was used to produce the hydrogeological maps of the study area. Surface and groundwater samples were collected during peak of dry season hydrogeological mapping and sent to various laboratories for chemical analysis. Parameters of physical quality of the water sample were measured in – situ. Aquachem 2014, version 2 software was used to analyze the chemical analytical data of the samples. The geological map of the area was updated where two rock types namely: coarse – porphyritic hornblende granite, sands and clays were mapped and studied. Samples of these rocks were collected and analyzed in thin section laboratory. Intrusive bodies such as quartz veins and aplitic dykes as well as geologic structures like faults and joints were mapped. The regional strike direction of the lineaments is dominantly N – S. Others are observed to be trending in the NNW - SSE with few trending NE - SW directions. 54% of the total groundwater samples analyzed belongs to Ca+2 (Mg+2) Cl- (SO4- 2). Surface water samples analyses shows 100% of the samples belong to Na+ (K+) Cl- (SO4-2) water type with prevailing sulphate and chloride. Results for chemical analyses of the reservoir water and groundwater samples of surrounding areas indicates the presence of some toxic elements such as cadmium (Cd++), lead (Pb++), manganese (Mn++), total iron (Fe), bromine (Br-), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg++), and calcium (Ca++) at concentrations above Nigerian Industrial Standard (2007) and World Health Organizations (2011) maximum permitted levels. This is a dangerous trend because these pollutants are very dangerous to both human and aquatic life. The primary sources of these elements are domestic and industrial wastes that are being discharged without proper treatment into open water bodies like the Jakara river in addition to geological factors such as weathering of rock materials. Jakara river is perennial because it receives most of its recharge from domestic effluents, municipal waste, Getsi stream, Tokarawa stream and other minor streams whose main recharge come from the Bompai and Tokarawa industrial areas respectively. These are the main sources of the pollutants. The Jakara stream ultimately drains its water into the Jakara reservoir, as a result of which making the reservoir heavily polluted. Consequently, this might have affected the chemical composition of groundwater resource of surrounding areas. Effective waste management and disposal policy need to be employed by the concerned authorities to curtail these unregulated methods of domestic and industrial waste disposal in Kano State, Northwest Nigeria."

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