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Geographical Problems in Implementing ITQ: New Zealand's Quota Management System

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Type: Conference Paper
Author: Rennie, Hamish G.
Conference: Crossing Boundaries, the Seventh Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property
Location: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Conf. Date: June 10-14
Date: 1998
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10535/1412
Sector: Fisheries
Region: Pacific and Australia
Subject(s): IASC
coastal regions
marine resources
property rights
Abstract: "Conflicts between different users of the coastal and marine areas of nations have grown as increased pressures are placed on these environments. Over-exploitation of fisheries and the growth of marine aquaculture are two areas that have become the centre of much concern (FAO 1995, Bailey et al. 1996). These conflicts have led to international acceptance of the need to develop integrated coastal and marine resource management systems (de Fontauberg et al., 1996).... "New Zealand implemented a Quota Management System (QMS) for its commercial fisheries in 1986. Fundamental to the system is the concept of Individual Transferable Quota (ITQ) the holding of which determines who has the right to access the commercial fishery. Effectively this is a system for distribution of property rights to individuals over a geographically situated common pool resource. Despite generally positive claims made for the effectivenss of the system, there are significant difficulties in its implementation, some of which have ended in, or are currently before, the courts. It is argued in this paper that the failure to take into account simple geographical understandings of the nature of the ITQ system lies at the heart of these difficulties.... "ITQ are in perpetuity rights which can be traded (or inherited) in the market-place. They are effectively bankable property in a similar manner to shares or land titles. The ACE, a relatively recent specific addition to the structure, is dependent on the holding of quota, but can be traded provided it maintains a connection to the original ITQ. I do not intend to go into the mechanics of the ACE relationship to ITQ, the rationale or its implications. It is the ITQ that is the critical element in the privatisation of the New Zealand fishery resources...."

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