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Bonnicksen, T. M. 2000. America's Ancient Forests: From the Ice Age to the Age of Discovery

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Type: Journal Article
Author: Williams, John Warren
Journal: Ecology and Society
Volume: 4
Date: 2000
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10535/2565
Sector: History
Region: North America
Subject(s): ecosystems--history
Abstract: "Throughout the late Quaternary, North American forests have been in a state of continuous flux. Plant associations have formed and fallen away as plant species responded independently to the complex climatic changes that occurred during the last deglaciation. Biotic processes operating on shorter time scales and moderated by long-term changes in the physical environment (e.g., dispersal and colonization of deglaciated areas, competition for resources among plant species, successional responses to disturbances, and plant-animal interactions) directly governed the structure and composition of late-Quaternary ecosystems."

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