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Reformulating the Commons

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dc.contributor.author Ostrom, Elinor en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2009-07-31T15:01:57Z
dc.date.available 2009-07-31T15:01:57Z
dc.date.issued 2002 en_US
dc.date.submitted 2008-12-18 en_US
dc.date.submitted 2008-12-18 en_US
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10535/3506
dc.description.abstract "Most natural resource systems used by multiple individuals can be classified as common-pool resources. Common-pool resources generate finite quantities of resource units and one person's use subtracts from the quantity of resource units available to others. Most common-pool resources are sufficiently large that multiple actors can simultaneously use the resource system and efforts to exclude potential beneficiaries are costly. Examples of common-pool resources include both natural and human-made systems including: groundwater basins, irrigation systems, forests, grazing lands, mainframe computers, government and corporate treasuries, and the Internet. Examples of the resource units derived from common-pool resources include water, timber, fodder, computer-processing units, information bits, and budget allocations. "When the resource units are highly valued and many actors benefit from appropriating (harvesting) them for consumption, exchange, or as a factor in a production process, the appropriations made by one individual are likely to create negative externalities for others. Nonrenewable resources, such as oil, may be withdrawn in an uncoordinated race that reduces the quantity of the resource units that can be withdrawn and greatly increases the cost of appropriation. Renewable resources, such as fisheries, may suffer from congestion within one time period but may also be so overharvested that the stock generating a flow of resource units is destroyed. An unregulated, open-access common-pool resource generating highly valued resource units is likely to be overused and may even be destroyed if overuse destroys the stock or the facility generating the t1ow of resource units." en_US
dc.subject resource management--theory en_US
dc.subject institutions--theory en_US
dc.subject community participation--theory en_US
dc.subject tragedy of the commons--theory en_US
dc.subject common pool resources--theory en_US
dc.subject self-governance en_US
dc.subject organizational behavior en_US
dc.subject collective action--theory en_US
dc.subject Workshop en_US
dc.title Reformulating the Commons en_US
dc.type Journal Article en_US
dc.type.published published en_US
dc.subject.sector Theory en_US
dc.identifier.citationjournal Ambiente & Sociedade en_US
dc.identifier.citationvolume 5 en_US
dc.identifier.citationnumber 10 en_US
dc.identifier.citationmonth January en_US
dc.submitter.email efcastle@indiana.edu en_US

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