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Multi-layered Natural Resources Management in Open and Closed Commons: A Case Study on the Right of Access and the State, Community and Farm Commons in Norway

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Type: Conference Paper
Author: Shimada, Daisaku; Murota, Takeshi
Conference: Shared Resources in a Rapidly Changing World, European Regional Conference of the International Association for the Study of the Commons
Location: Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Conf. Date: September 14-17
Date: 2011
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10535/7698
Sector: Agriculture
Region: Europe
Subject(s): natural resources
resource management
land tenure and use
agricultural development
Abstract: "This paper defines theclosed commonsas a commons which is equipped with strict membership requirements and rules based on a regional relationship for managing and using available natural resources.Iriai1 in Japanis an example of this. There also existsin Norway closed commons, such as the state commons (statsallmenning), the community commons (bygdeallmenning)and the farm commons (realsameie). These have been selected as a case study of a closed commons in this paper."

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