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Building Shared Language Research Environments Inside European Union: How to Optimize the System Based on Experiences from Real Life

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Type: Conference Paper
Author: Oksanen, Ville; Linden, Krister
Conference: Governing Pooled Knowledge Resources: Building Institutions for Sustainable Scientific, Cultural, and Genetic Resources Commons, 1st Thematic IASC Conference on the Knowledge Commons
Location: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Conf. Date: September 12-14
Date: 2012
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10535/9575
Sector: Information & Knowledge
Subject(s): copyright
Abstract: "Building a shared research environment in Internet is a challenging task. The licenses for services and datasets are typically tied to certain universities or geographical locations -- if the licenses are available at all. In this article we first describe the general environment, in which the language researchers work e.g. what kind of tools and datasets are being used. Special consideration is given to data driven language research because it obviously relies on both. A brief summary of the relevant EU-regulation is also included in this section. In the second section we document two case examples. The first one is the EU-CLARIN project, whose goal was to establish an EU-wide network of service providers for language research tools and datasets. In that project IPR-licensing was one of the key themes, and considerable resources were used to seek solutions which would have enabled maximum sharing of the content between all participants. The project also prepared some empirical research on licensing practices pertaining to the datasets. The key results of this research are summarized in this section. The chosen three-tiered licensing model (publicly available -- academic content -- restricted content) and its justifications are also analyzed in detail. The second case example is the META-SHARE project, whose aim is to build 'an open, integrated, secure and interoperable sharing and exchange facility' for language resources. The project also aims to offer the content to any research domain in which language plays a critical role. In META-SHARE the solution is to use tailored 'walled garden' versions of the Creative Commons licenses to facilitate the distribution among the members and also to offer special commercial licenses for commercial datasets and tools. We describe in detail how the licensing is supposed to work and what drawbacks and benefits it has. In the end of the section, we compare the projects and their outcomes and show how their approaches are actually complementary to each other. The last section of this paper starts with a description of how the licensing and general management of IPRs should be done in an ideal world based on the experiences from the aforementioned projects. We then proceed to consider to what extent the ideal model could be implemented in the real world taking into consideration the limited resources and political realities of IPR regulation. We end the section with an analysis of certain concrete proposals e.g. collective licensing for research databases and an EU-level general exception to copyright for research purposes."

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