Is National Park for Conservation? Case Study in Merapi Volcano, Indonesia

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"Merapi Volcano environment has been threat because of unsustainable management. Water has been privatize by some commercial company with facilitation from local government owned company (PDAM) that caused thousand farmers in Pakem, Cangkringan, and Ngemplak Municipality can not planting their farm. Sand has been mined exploitative by commercial and military-owned company until 5 million cubic meter/year. Wellspring source which so quickly degraded because of mass development and tourism, destruction of flora and animal and piracy of some medical plant which neglected local wisdom. "The paradigm of government is still same, as well as mostly of private sector, exploitation of resource for income, without any consideration for long terms utilization and respecting of human rights. Economic is always put beyond environment sustainability and human rights concern. Government role has been very passive and less function when faced with environmental destruction. We have several law and local regulation which enable to control and monitor the environment degradation. However it doesn't work well because government officials very weak and powerless when faced with case which often involved someone who has political or business power. On the other hand, community has been very active to control and protect the environment from destruction, such as from sand mining, water exploitation, forest fire, tress planting, as part of their obligations as local people and to assuring their right in managing the forest."



IASC, parks--case studies, conservation--case studies, state and local governance, privatization