Assessing Multi-level Policies for Conservation of the Heart of Borneo as ‘Dual’ Commons

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"Ecosystems in the Heart of Borneo (hereinafter, HoB) have a dual nature: the local and global commons. As the local commons, HoB is inhabited by indigenous peoples who depend their livelihood on the forests for swidden agriculture, hunting, NTFP under their own customary laws. As the global commons, HoB is targeted by a trans-national conservation agreement as well as prominent international conventions. By using the terminology in the field of the research on common-pool resources (CPRs), HoB ecosystem itself can be considered to be ‘resource system’, in which the local people depend their livelihood on ‘resource units’ extracted from the ‘resource system’ of HoB. ‘Resource units’ are synonymous with ecosystem services, because human society extracts and uses ‘resource units’ from CPRs to gain environmental, economic, social or cultural benefits (Miyanaga and Shimada, 2018). Ecosystem services are sometimes location specific, and they tend to differ from place to place because human-environment interactions occur substantially at the local level (Lin et al, 2015). Hence, governance of such ecosystem services is best addressed through selfgovernance by the local affected stakeholders (Lin et al, 2015; Miyanaga and Shimada, 2018). This gives us robust ground to attach importance to the local reality when examining the national policy for the governance of ‘dual’ commons. Our research aims at clarifying relevant multi-level policies such as international, national and local level, and assessing the way of mutual application among them."