Working Together: Forest-linked Small and Medium Enterprise Associations and Collective Action


"This paper draws out some lessons on how and why associations work. It summarises research from Brazil, China, Guyana, India, South Africa and Uganda. The research found that lasting associations generally have a strong degree of autonomy. They usually have leaders with a track-record of social commitment. Most have gradually evolving sets of procedures that institutionalise the progress made by charismatic founders. Their focus is usually restricted to a few long-term issues. Equity is highest where there is greatest investment in democracy. Equitable associations tend to pay attention to transparency over costs and benefits. Most also have in place sanctions for free riders or those who break their rules, and clear procedures for resolving conflicts."



forest management, conflict resolution, forestry