Challenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixtures

dc.contributor.authorLydy, Michaelen_US
dc.contributor.authorBelden, Jasonen_US
dc.contributor.authorWheelock, Craigen_US
dc.contributor.authorHammock, Bruceen_US
dc.contributor.authorDenton, Debraen_US
dc.date.accessioned2009-07-31T14:56:44Z
dc.date.available2009-07-31T14:56:44Z
dc.date.issued2004en_US
dc.date.submitted2009-04-06en_US
dc.date.submitted2009-04-06en_US
dc.description.abstract"This paper introduces the field of mixture toxicity and the challenges in regulating pesticide mixtures. Even though pesticides are unique chemical stressors designed to have biological activity that can affect a number of nontarget species, they are intentionally placed into the environment in large quantities. Currently, methods and terminology for evaluating mixture toxicity are poorly established. The most common approach used is the assumption of additive concentration, with the concentrations adjusted for potency to a reference toxicant. Using this approach, the joint action of pesticides that have similar chemical structures and modes of toxic action can be predicted. However, this approach and other modeling techniques often provide little insight into the observed toxicity produced by mixtures of pesticides from different classes. Particularly difficult to model are mixtures that involve a secondary toxicant that changes the toxicokinetics of a primary toxicant. This may result in increased activation or a change in the persistence of the primary toxicant within the organism and may be responsible for a several-fold increase or decrease in toxicity. At present, the ecological effects caused by mixtures of pesticides are given little consideration in the regulatory process. However, mixtures are being considered in relation to human health in the pesticide registration process, setting a precedent that could be followed for ecological protection. Additionally, pesticide mixtures may be regulated through toxicity testing of surface water under the Clean Water Act. The limits of our basic knowledge of how mixtures interact are compromising both these avenues for regulating mixtures. We face many challenges to adequately protecting the environment from mixture toxicity; these challenges include understanding the interactions of toxicants within an organism, identifying the mixtures that most commonly occur and cause adverse effects, and developing a regulatory structure capable of minimizing environmental impacts."en_US
dc.identifier.citationjournalEcology and Societyen_US
dc.identifier.citationmonthDecemberen_US
dc.identifier.citationnumber6en_US
dc.identifier.citationvolume9en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10535/3059
dc.subjectenvironmental protectionen_US
dc.subjectregulationen_US
dc.subjectrisken_US
dc.subject.sectorGeneral & Multiple Resourcesen_US
dc.titleChallenges in Regulating Pesticide Mixturesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.type.publishedpublisheden_US
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