Human Impacts of Displacement from Protected Aeas: Lessons from the Establishment of the Derema Corridor, North-Eastern Tanzania

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"The establishment of a conservation corridor between forest reserves in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, involved the displacement of hundreds of small- holder farmers who held customary land rights to the area and paying monetary compensation for their livelihood losses. Through a combination of qualitative and quantitative social research methods, the conservation and compensation process and the livelihood responses of affected people were investigated. The results suggest that a failure to unambiguously identify rights-holders to resources in the area, inadequate commitment and follow up by the involved conservation agencies, and limited agency of local actors in the arenas of decision-making contributed to the unpredictability of the process and its outcomes, which were mostly experienced as negative. The process accelerated social marginalization as many of the affected rights-holders, especially women, were not compensated for their lost assets. The poorest people were among the most affected whereas few wealthy people received the largest compensation and were able to invest in improved livelihoods. Clear definitions of local rights to resources coupled with fair and timely compensation, inclusive mechanisms for participation, and a sustained presence and commitment of the conservation agencies, are seen as pre-requisites for forest conservation interventions involving compensated human displacement that are to avoid negative social consequences to the affected people."
protected areas, displacement, compensation, land tenure and use