Local Institutions, Land Reform and Globalisation in Mongolia

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"Management of Common Pool Resources (CPRs) today cannot be considered in isolation from the phenomenon of globalisation. In this paper results of recent field research and analysis of academic and policy documents are used as a basis to explore the relationships between global discourses, development policy, academic theory and local realities in Mongolia. It is argued that discourses such as the Tragedy of the Commons and biodiversity conservation have become increasingly important in Mongolia since decollectivisation of the herding economy and the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. This paper further argues that such discourses frequently override consideration of local realities, variability and institutional complexity when applied in pastoral areas in general and in the Mongolian context in particular. They have recently been used in support of land reform arguments in Mongolia, which at their most extreme have advocated privatisation of land. The links between ideas of people-environment relations underlying these key discourses are assessed. Through examination of case study material relating particularly to biodiversity conservation current theories concerning enabling conditions for collective action at the local level and the role of development interventions are challenged."
IASC, common pool resources, pastoralism, herders, land tenure and use, privatization, globalization