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Review and Evaluation of Community-Based Tenure Instruments in Central Philippines: Certificate of Stewardship Contract (CSC) Community- Based Forest Management Agreement (CBFMA)

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Type: Conference Paper
Author: Bullecer, Rumila
Conference: Survival of the Commons: Mounting Challenges and New Realities, the Eleventh Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property
Location: Bali, Indonesia
Conf. Date: June 19-23, 2006
Date: 2006
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10535/1385
Sector: Forestry
Region: East Asia
Subject(s): IASC
community forestry
common pool resources
Abstract: "The 'Review and Evaluation of Community-Based Tenure Instruments in Central Philippines' is an initiative of the Sustainable Watershed Advocates Network, a coalition of organizations whose prime interest is sustainable watershed management. The initiative provided an in- depth investigation of the status of community-based tenure instruments specifically the Certificate of Stewardship Contract (CSC) and the Community- Based Forest Management Agreement (CBFMA). "Through the review and evaluation, insights and learning experiences gained in the social preparation of communities, issuance, monitoring and evaluation, and renewal of the aforementioned tenure instruments are found useful in the advent of the Protected Area Community- Based Resource Management Agreement (PACBRMA). "Covering 4 municipalities in the Visayan region, the review and evaluation specifically looked into how major stakeholders such as the LGUs, DENR, tenured individuals and communities, absentee land claimants/ landowners, NGOs, POs, and the Protected Area Management Board (PAMB) performed their roles and responsibilities in the different stages of tenure instrument implementation. It also delved into major issues and concerns such as security of tenure, taxation and resource use, and change of tenure instruments and readiness of tenured migrants. "In the course of the review and evaluation, several major conclusions are established. Conclusions pertaining to roles and relationships of major stakeholders have shown that there is limited participation of LGUs in the implementation of tenure instruments, less impact of devolved DENR functions on social and community-based forestry programs to LGUs, prevailing insecurity among tenured individuals and communities, conflict between DENR policy and the culturally accepted practice of tenants, constraint in sustaining NGO partnership with POs, and insignificant involvement of the PAMB in TI implementation. "With regard to security of tenure, there is still insecurity of tenure and uncertainty of the future despite the possession of a TI by tenured migrants. In terms of taxation and resource use, the review and evaluation has revealed that there is misconception regarding tax declarations as proofs of landownership, perception of 'double taxation' on payments for forest charges and other fees, resentment over DENR requirements in the cutting of trees, and fear of losing lands in restoration zones. As community-based instruments evolved with DENR programs, the change of tenure instruments has created anxiety among tenured migrants. Moreover, as priorities shifted to organized community-based efforts, improving governance and eliciting community participation pose considerable challenges for POs. "The results of the review and evaluation of community-based tenure instruments serve as an eye opener for major stakeholders to improve the implementation of the CSC and CBFMA, and to offer better strategies and mechanisms for the smooth operation of PACBRMA."

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